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Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking 7th Edition

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking - 7th Edition - by Charles H. Corwin - ISBN 9780321804907
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Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Cr...
7th Edition
Charles H. Corwin
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780321804907

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Book Details

1 Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 Evolution of Chemistry 1.2 Modern Chemistry CHEMISTRY CONNECTION “Worth Your Salt?” 1.3 Learning Chemistry CHEMISTRY CONNECTION A Student Success Story Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test Prerequisite Science Skills PSS.1 Measurements PSS.2 Significant Digits PSS.3 Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits PSS.4 Adding and Subtracting Measurements PSS.5 Multiplying and Dividing Measurements PSS.6 Exponential Numbers PSS.7 Scientific Notation 2 The Metric System 2.1 Basic Units and Symbols CRITICAL THINKING The International System of Measurement (SI) 2.2 Metric Conversion Factors 2.3 Metric—Metric Conversions 2.4 Metric—English Conversions CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Olympics CRITICAL THINKING World Trade Center 2.5 The Percent Concept 2.6 Volume by Calculation 2.7 Volume by Displacement 2.8 The Density Concept 2.9 Temperature 2.10 The Heat Concept Summary • Problem-Solving Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 3 Matter and Energy 3.1 Physical States of Matter 3.2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 3.3 Names and Symbols of the Elements CRITICAL THINKING Aluminum or Aluminium? 3.4 Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Elements 104 and Beyond 3.5 Compounds and Chemical Formulas 3.6 Physical and Chemical Properties 3.7 Physical and Chemical Changes 3.8 Conservation of Mass 3.9 Potential and Kinetic Energy 3.10 Conservation of Energy CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Recycling Aluminum Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 4 Models of the Atom 4.1 Dalton Model of the Atom CHEMISTRY CONNECTION John Dalton 4.2 Thomson Model of the Atom 4.3 Rutherford Model of the Atom 4.4 Atomic Notation 4.5 Atomic Mass CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Heavy Water 4.6 The Wave Nature of Light 4.7 The Quantum Concept 4.8 Bohr Model of the Atom CRITICAL THINKING Neon Lights 4.9 Energy Levels and Sublevels 4.10 Electron Configuration 4.11 Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom Summmary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 5 The Periodic Table 5.1 Classification of Elements CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Dmitri Mendeleev 5.2 The Periodic Law Concept 5.3 Groups and Periods of Elements CRITICAL THINKING IUPAC Group Numbers 5.4 Periodic Trends 5.5 Properties of Elements 5.6 Blocks of Elements 5.7 Valence Electrons 5.8 Electron Dot Formulas 5.9 Ionization Energy 5.10 Ionic Charges CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Evolution of Chemical Elements Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 6 Language of Chemistry 6.1 Classification of Compounds CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Antoine and Marie Lavoisier 6.2 Monoatomic Ions 6.3 Polyatomic Ions 6.4 Writing Chemical Formulas CRITICAL THINKING Nutritional Potassium 6.5 Binary Ionic Compounds 6.6 Ternary Ionic Compounds 6.7 Binary Molecular Compounds 6.8 Binary Acids 6.9 Ternary Oxyacids CHEMISTRY CONNECTION IUPAC Nomenclature Summary • Nomenclature Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 7 Chemical Reactions CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Fireworks 7.1 Evidence for Chemical Reactions 7.2 Writing Chemical Equations 7.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 7.4 Classifying Chemical Reactions 7.5 Combination Reactions 7.6 Decomposition Reactions 7.7 The Activity Series Concept 7.8 Single-Replacement Reactions 7.9 Solubility Rules 7.10 Double-Replacement Reactions 7.11 Neutralization Reactions CRITICAL THINKING Household Chemicals Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 8 The Mole Concept 8.1 Avogadro’s Number CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Analogies for Avogadro’s Number 8.2 Mole Calculations I 8.3 Molar Mass 8.4 Mole Calculations II 8.5 Molar Volume 8.6 Mole Calculations III 8.7 Percent Composition 8.8 Empirical Formula 8.9 Molecular Formula CRITICAL THINKING Avogadro’s Number Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 9 Chemical Equation Calculations 9.1 Interpreting a Chemical Equation 9.2 Mole—Mole Relationships CRITICAL THINKING Iron versus Steel 9.3 Types of Stoichiometry Problems 9.4 Mass—Mass Problems 9.5 Mass—Volume Problems 9.6 Volume—Volume Problems CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Manufacturing Ammonia 9.7 Limiting Reactant Concept 9.8 Limiting Reactant Problems 9.9 Percent Yield Summary • Problem-Solving Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 10 Gases 10.1 Properties of Gases 10.2 Atmospheric Pressure CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Greenhouse Effect 10.3 Variables Affecting Gas Pressure 10.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure—Volume Relationships CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Robert Boyle 10.5 Charles’s Law: Volume—Temperature Relationships 10.6 Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure—Temperature Relationships 10.7 Combined Gas Law 10.8 The Vapor Pressure Concept 10.9 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 10.10 Ideal Gas Behavior 10.11 Ideal Gas Law CRITICAL THINKING Conceptualizing Gases Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 11 Liquids and Solids 11.1 Properties of Liquids 11.2 The Intermolecular Bond Concept 11.3 Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity, and Surface Tension 11.4 Properties of Solids 11.5 Crystalline Solids 11.6 Changes of Physical State 11.7 Structure of Water CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Water Purification 11.8 Physical Properties of Water 11.9 Chemical Properties of Water 11.10 Hydrates CRITICAL THINKING Bottled Water Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 12 Chemical Bonding 12.1 The Chemical Bond Concept 12.2 Ionic Bonds 12.3 Covalent Bonds 12.4 Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules 12.5 Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions 12.6 Polar Covalent Bonds CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Linus Pauling 12.7 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 12.8 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 12.9 Hydrogen Bonds 12.10 Shapes of Molecules CRITICAL THINKING Diamond versus Graphite Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 13 Solutions 13.1 Gases in Solution 13.2 Liquids in Solution 13.3 Solids in Solution CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Colloids 13.4 The Dissolving Process 13.5 Rate of Dissolving 13.6 Solubility and Temperature 13.7 Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions 13.8 Mass/Mass Percent Concentration 13.9 Molar Concentration CRITICAL THINKING Water Fluoridation 13.10 Dilution of a Solution 13.11 Solution Stoichiometry Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Properties of Acids and Bases 14.2 Arrhenius Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Svante Arrhenius 14.3 Brønsted—Lowry Acids and Bases 14.4 Acid—Base Indicators 14.5 Acid—Base Titrations 14.6 Acid—Base Standardization 14.7 Ionization of Water 14.8 The pH Concept 14.9 Advanced pH Calculations CRITICAL THINKING Acid Rain 14.10 Strong and Weak Electrolytes 14.11 Net Ionic Equations Summary • Problem—Solving Organizer Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 15 Advanced Problem Solving 15.1 Advanced Problem-Solving Strategies 15.2 Concept Maps — Mole Relationships 15.3 Concept Maps — Stoichiometry 15.4 Multiple-Reaction Stoichiometry CRITICAL THINKING Nanotechnology 15.5 Advanced Problem-Solving Examples Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Online Exercises Chapter Self-Test 16 Chemical Equilibrium 16.1 Collision Theory 16.2 Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions 16.3 The Chemical Equilibrium Concept CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Ozone Hole 16.4 General Equilibrium Constant, K eq 16.5 Equilibria Shifts for Gases 16.6 Ionization Equilibrium Constant, K i 16.7 Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases 16.8 Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, K sp 16.9 Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 17 Oxidation and Reduction 17.1 Oxidation Numbers 17.2 Oxidation—Reduction Reactions 17.3 Balancing Redox Equations: Oxidation Number Method 17.4 Balancing Redox Equations: Half-Reaction Method 17.5 Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions 17.6 Voltaic Cells 17.7 Electrolytic Cells CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Hybrid Vehicles Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 18 Nuclear Chemistry 18.1 Natural Radioactivity 18.2 Nuclear Equations 18.3 Radioactive Decay Series 18.4 Radioactive Half-Life 18.5 Applications of Radionuclides CRITICAL THINKING Nuclear Medicine 18.6 Induced Radioactivity 18.7 Nuclear Fission CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Nuclear Power Plant 18.8 Nuclear Fusion Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 19 Organic Chemistry 19.1 Hydrocarbons 19.2 Alkanes 19.3 Alkenes and Alkynes 19.4 Arenes 19.5 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 19.6 Organic Halides 19.7 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 19.8 Amines 19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 19.10 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Forensic Chemistry Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test 20 Biochemistry 20.1 Biological Compounds 20.2 Proteins 20.3 Enzymes 20.4 Carbohydrates 20.5 Lipids CRITICAL THINKING Vitamins 20.6 Nucleic Acids CRITICAL THINKING Left- and Right-Handed Molecules Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test Appendices A Weights and Measures B Physical Constants C Activity Series for Metals D Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds E Vapor Pressure of Water F Properties of Water G Answers to Concept Exercises H Answers to Key Term Exercises I Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises J Answers to Chapter Self-Tests Glossary Photo Credits Index

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