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*launch*### Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach9th EditionYunus A. Cengel Dr., Michael A. Boles Publisher: McGraw-Hill EducationISBN: 9781259822674

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

## Solutions for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

Problem 2P:

One of the most amusing things a person can experience is when a car in neutral appears to go uphill...

Problem 7P:

What is the net force acting on a car cruising at a constant velocity of 70 km/h (a) on a level road...

Problem 8P:

What is the weight, in N, of an object with a mass of 200 kg at a location where g = 9.6 m/s2?

Problem 9P:

If the mass of an object is 10 lbm, what is its weight, in lbf, at a location where g = 32.0 ft/s2?

Problem 10P:

The acceleration of high-speed aircraft is sometimes expressed in gs (in multiples of the standard...

Problem 11P:

The value of the gravitational acceleration g decreases with elevation from 9.807 m/s2 at sea level...

Problem 12P:

A 3-kg plastic tank that has a volume of 0.2 m3 is filled with liquid water. Assuming the density of...

Problem 13P:

A 2-kg rock is thrown upward with a force of 200 N at a location where the local gravitational...

Problem 14P:

Solve Prob. 113 using appropriate software. Print out the entire solution, including the numerical...

Problem 16P:

A 150-lbm astronaut took his bathroom scale (a spring scale) and a beam scale (compares masses) to...

Problem 17P:

The gas tank of a car is filled with a nozzle that discharges gasoline at a constant flow rate....

Problem 20P:

A can of soft drink at room temperature is put into the refrigerator so that it will cool. Would you...

Problem 21P:

How would you define a system to determine the temperature rise created in a lake when a portion of...

Problem 45P:

The absolute pressure in a compressed air tank is 200 kPa. What is this pressure in psia?

Problem 49P:

A pressure gage connected to a tank reads 50 psi at a location where the barometric reading is 29 1...

Problem 51P:

A 200-pound man has a total foot imprint area of 72 in2. Determine the pressure this man exerts on...

Problem 54P:

Consider a 1.75-m-tall man standing vertically in water and completely submerged in a pool....

Problem 61P:

Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure. If the reading on...

Problem 70P:

The maximum blood pressure in the upper arm of a healthy parson is about 120 mmHg. If a vertical...

Problem 73P:

Calculate the absolute pressure. P1, of the manometer shown In Fig. 173 in kPa. The local...

Problem 78P:

The gage pressure of the air in the tank shown in Fig. 178 is measured to be 80 kPa. Determine the...

Problem 90RP:

A hydraulic lift is to be used to lift a 1900-kg weight by putting a weight of 25 kg on a piston...

Problem 95RP:

The average body temperature of a person rises by about 2C during strenuous exercise. What is the...

Problem 101RP:

Balloons are often filled with helium gas because it weighs only about one-seventh of what air...

## Browse All Chapters of This Textbook

Chapter 1.11 - Problem-solving TechniqueChapter 2.8 - Energy And EnvironmentChapter 3.8 - Other Equations Of StateChapter 4.5 - Internal Energy, Enthalpy, And Specific Heats Of Solids And LiquidsChapter 5.5 - Energy Analysis Of Unsteady-flow ProcessesChapter 6.11 - The Carnot Refrigerator And Heat PumpChapter 7.13 - Entropy BalanceChapter 8.8 - Exergy Balance : Control VolumesChapter 9.12 - Second-law Analysis Of Gas Power CyclesChapter 10.9 - Combined Gas-vapor Power Cycles

Chapter 11.10 - Absorption Refrigeration SystemsChapter 12.6 - The Dh, D.u, And D.s Of Real GasesChapter 13.3 - Properties Of Gas Mixtures: Ideal And Real GasesChapter 14.7 - Air-conditioning ProcessesChapter 15.7 - Second-law Analysis Of Reacting SystemsChapter 16.6 - Phase EquilibriumChapter 17.7 - Steam Nozzles

## Sample Solutions for this Textbook

We offer sample solutions for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach homework problems. See examples below:

In this case, there are two forms of energy involved; potential energy and kinetic energy. When the...Show the free body diagram of the absolute pressure in water. Determine the density of the liquid....Show the free body diagram of the building. Write the expression of pressure at the top....Determine the density of fluid. ρfluid=SGfluid×ρw (I) Here, the specific gravity of the fluid is...Determine the density of mercury. ρHg=SGHg×ρw (I) Here, the specific gravity of the mercury is SGHg...Determine the density of mercury. ρHg=SGHg×ρw (I) Here, the specific gravity of the mercury is SGHg...Show the free body diagram of the systolic and diastolic pressure of a healthy person. Write the...Write the expression of pressure in U-tube manometer with before the pressure change of air....What is the weight of a 1-kg substance in N, kN, kgm/s2, kgf, lbmft/s2, and lbf?

Refer Figure 1.13. Write the expression of magnitude of temperature unit. ΔT(K)=ΔT(°C) (I) Since the...Show the free body diagram of the vertical piston-cylinder device. Write the expression of vertical...Balloons are often filled with helium gas because it weighs only about one-seventh of what air...Show the free body diagram of the balloon. Write the expression of volume of sphere of a balloon....The difference between the macroscopic and microscopic forms of energy is discussed as below in the...Calculate the load of the lift at any given time. m=N(w) (I) Here, number of chairs at any given...Write the equation of total power required during the rates of changes in potential and kinetic...Write the equation of electric power consumed by the lights in the classrooms. E˙lighting,...Calculate the total mass moved by the escalator at any given time. m=(n)(w) (I) Here, the number of...Write the energy balance equation for a control volume when car cruising is taken as the system....Calculate the heat output of boiler. Q˙out=Q˙in×ηfurnace (I) Here, heat input of boiler is Q˙in and...Write the mass flow rate of water. m˙=ρV˙ (I) Here, the volumetric flow rate of water is V˙ and...Calculate the rate at which mechanical energy of fluid supplied to the pump....Calculate the rate of heat transfer by convection. Q˙conv=hAΔT=h(πD2)(Ts−To) (I) Here, change in the...Since the 1000 W iron is left on the ironing board, so it is supplying energy to the surooundings by...Calculate the power required to raise the cabin at a constant speed of 1.2 m/s. W˙req=mgV (I) Here,...Calculate the minimum power required to pump water from the lower reservoir to the higher reservoir....Convert the absolute pressure of the air from mm Hg to kPa. P=(700 mm Hg)(0.1333 kPa1 mm Hg)=93.31...The contents in the tank filled with a mixture of liquid and vapour propane is considered to be a...The final pressure is equal to the initial pressure of the refrigerant R-134a. P2=P1=Patm+mpg(πD24)...10 kg of R-134a at 300 kPa fills a rigid container whose volume is 14 L. Determine the temperature...Write the final temperature of the spring-loaded piston-cylinder device using linear P−ν process....Write the equation of specific volume of superheated water using ideal gas equation of state. v=RTP...Write the equation of specific volume of superheated water using ideal gas equation of state. v=RTP...Refer to Table A-1, obtain the gas constant, critical pressure, and the critical temperature of...Determine the final temperature using the ideal gas equation. T2=(T1)×(v2v1) (I) Here, the initial...Determine the temperature of the refrigerant using the ideal gas equation. T=PvR (I) Here, the...Determine the specific volume in the tank. v=νm (I) Here, the volume of the tank is ν and the mass...Determine the pressure of the tank using the ideal gas equation. P=RTv (I) Here, the universal gas...State 1 Refer to Table A-5, “Saturated water-Pressure table”, obtain the value of saturated...State 1 Refer to Table A-12, obtain the value of saturated temperature at a pressure of 320 kPa as...Refer to Table A-1, obtain the gas constant, critical pressure, and critical temperature of steam....If considered a rigid tank then it has a constant volume and dν=0. Therefore, there will be no...Show the free body diagram of the piston-cylinder device contains air. Determine the process 1...Write the energy balance equation for closed system. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, energy transfer in...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Write the expression for the initial volume of nitrogen. ν1=mRT1P1 (I) Here, the mass of the spring...From Appendix Table A-2c “Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases”. Write the expression...Write the general expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total...Determine the change in an initial specific enthalpy of the liquid water. h1=hf@50°F+vf(P−Psat@T)...Determine the total initial volume of piston cylinder device. ν1=mfvf+mgvg (I) Here, the mass of the...Write the expression for mass of helium. m=P1V1RT1 (I) Here, the initial pressure of helium is P1,...Write the expression for the mass of the water. mw=ρV (I) Here, the density of the water is ρ and...Show the free body diagram of the well-insulated room. Write the expression for the energy balance...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a...The carbon dioxide flows through the nozzle at steady state. Hence, the inlet and exit mass flow...Write the energy rate balance equation for one inlet and one outlet system....Consider the air flows at steady state. Hence, the inlet and exit mass flow rates are equal....Here, the warm and cold streams of fluids are mixed in a rigid mixing chamber and operates at steady...Here, the two streams (comparatively hot and cold) of ideal gases are mixed in a rigid mixing...Consider the entire room as system and the air circulates the in the room itself. There is no...At the final observation, the valve is closed and the tank composed with one-half water and vapor at...Write the equation of mass balance. min−me=Δmsystem (I) Here, the inlet mass is min, the exit mass...Write the equation of mass balance. min−me=Δmsystem (I) Here, the inlet mass is min, the exit mass...Consider the entire building as system and the air circulates the in the building itself. There is...Write the general mass balance equation. m˙in−m˙out=ddt(msystem)m˙in−m˙out=dmsystemdt (I) Here, the...Write the formula for mass of air (ma) at initial and final states. ma,1=(P1ν1RT1)a (I)...The turbine operates steadily. Hence, the inlet and exit mass flow rates are equal. m˙1=m˙2=m˙ Write...Reconsider Prob. 5178. Using appropriate software, investigate the effects of turbine exit area and...Write the equation of mass balance. min−me=Δmsystem (I) Here, the inlet mass is min, the exit mass...Write the formula for absolute pressure build up in the cooker. Pabs=Pgage+Patm (I) Here, the...A tank with an internal volume of 1 m3 contains air at 800 kPa and 25C. A valve on the tank is...Draw schematic diagram of single flash geothermal power plant as shown in Figure 1. Write the...Draw the schematic diagram of the given turbo charger of the engine as shown in Figure 1. Write the...A mechanic claims to have developed a car engine that runs on water instead of gasoline. What is...Determine the construction costs of coal. Construction costcoal=[(the amount of elelctricity...Determine the construction costs of coal. Construction costcoal=[(the amount of elelctricity...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Determine the rate of heat transferred to the water. Q˙H=m˙w(h2−h1)w (I) Here, the mass flow rate of...Determine the coefficient of performance of the Carnot heat pump depends on the temperature limits...Determine the highest thermal efficiency a heat engine between two specified temperature limits....Determine the total volume of refrigerated air replaced by room air per year. νair,replaced=(total...Determine coefficient of performance to the refrigerator. COPR=Q˙LW˙inW˙in=Q˙LCOPR (I) Here, the...Determine the mass flow rate of the bread. m˙bread=(no. of loaves per hours)×(average mass per...Determine the COP of a reversible heat pump depends on the temperature limits in the cycle only....Determine the mass of the air in the truck. mair=ρair×νtruck=ρair×(l×b×h)truck (I) Here, the density...Determine the rate of water saved volume of the low-flow shower head a family of four will save per...Determine the density of air at the indoor conditions. ρo=PoRTo (I) Here, the house maintain a...Determine the density of air at the indoor conditions. ρo=PoRTo (I) Here, the house maintain a...Determine the rate of heat absorbed from the water. Q˙H=m˙w(h2−h1)w (I) Here, the mass flow rate of...Does a cycle for which Q 0 violate the Clausius inequality? Why?Write the expression to calculate initial specific volume of the refrigerant. v1=vf+x1(vg−vf) (I)...Write the expression for the energy balance equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total energy...Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here,...Write the expression to calculate the mass flow rate m˙. m˙=P1ν˙1RT1 (I) Here, initial pressure is...Write the expression for the power input of the compressor for isentropic compression process....Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here,...Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. E˙in−E˙out=ΔE˙system (I)....Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. E˙in−E˙out=ΔE˙system (I)....Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. E˙in−E˙out=ΔE˙system chicken...Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. E˙in−E˙out=ΔE˙system (I)...Write the expression to calculate the enthalpy change in process 1-2. ΔS1−2=−mRlnP2P1 (I) Here,...Write the expression for the ideal gas equation to calculate the mass of helium. m=P1ν1RT1 (I) Here,...Write the expression to calculate the mass of the steam in the cylinder. m=ν1v1 (I) Here, mass of...Write the expression to calculate the initial enthalpy of the refrigerant. h1=hf+x1hfg (I) Here,...Write the formula to calculate the specific entropy of steam from tables (s). s=sf+x(sfg) (I) Here,...Refer to Table A-2Ea, obtain the properties of air at room temperature. Gas constant, R=0.3704...Refer to Table A-2Ea, obtain the properties of air at room temperature. Gas constant, R=0.3704...Write the formula to calculate the specific volume of steam from tables (v). v=vf+x(vg−vf) (I) Here,...Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here,...Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system without air in the room....Write the expression for the energy balance equation for closed system. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here,...Write the expression for the energy balance of steady flow system. E˙in−E˙out=ΔE˙system (I). Here,...Write the expression for the energy balance equation for the closed system. ΔEin−ΔEout=ΔEsystem (I)...There are two conditions for any device to maximize the work output. The process to be performed...Express the mass in the system. m=PνRT (I) Here, mass is m, pressure is P, volume is ν, gas constant...Express the entropy balance for the two constant pressure devices....Express the boundary work done. Wb,out=mP2(ν2−ν1) (I) Here, mass is m, final pressure is P2 and...Express the final volume of the air. νa2=νa1−νw (I) Here, initial volume of air is νa1 and volume of...Draw the schematic diagram of the flow of refrigerant-134a through evaporator section as shown in...Write the expression for the mass balance for a tank which acts as a system. min−mout=Δmsystem...Write the expression for the initial mass (m1) of helium in the cylinder. m1=P1VRT1 (I) Here,...Write the expression to calculate the specific volume of saturated water (v). v=vf+x(vg−vf) (I)...Write the ideal gas equation to calculate the mass of the gas (m). m=P1V1RT1 (I) Here, initial...Write the ideal gas equation to calculate the mass of the gas (m). m=P1V1RT1 (I) Here, initial...Express the mass balance for a pressure cooker which acts as a system. min−mout=Δmsystemme=m1−m2 (I)...Express the mass balance for a pressure cooker which acts as a system. min−mout=Δmsystemme=m1−m2 (I)...Write the formula to calculate initial mass of air in the tank (mi). mi=PiVRTi (I) Here, initial...Analysis of actual gas power cycles is more complex. Hence, to minimize the analysis to a manageable...Draw the T−s diagram for an ideal gas turbine cycle with two stages of compression and expansion as...Draw the T−s diagram for pure jet engine as shown in Figure (1). Consider that the aircraft is...Draw the T−s diagram for pure jet engine as shown in Figure (1). Consider that the aircraft is...Draw the T−s diagram for pure jet engine as shown in Figure (1). Consider that the aircraft is...Draw the T−s diagram for pure jet engine as shown in Figure (1). Consider, the pressure is Pi , the...Draw the T−s diagram for turbojet engine as shown in Figure (1). Consider, the pressure is Pi , the...Draw the ideal dual cycle on P−v diagram. Consider, the pressure is Pi , the specific volume is vi,...Draw the T−s diagram of the regenerative Brayton cycle as shown in Figure (1). Write the expression...Show the regenerative Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid, on T−s diagram as in Figure (1)....Draw T−s diagram for regenerative Brayton cycle as shown in Figure (1). Write the expression of...Draw the T−s diagram for regenerative gas turbine cycle as shown in Figure (1). Write the expression...Draw the layout of the gas-turbine plant functioning on the regenerative Brayton cycle as shown in...Draw the P−v diagram of four stroke as in Figure (I). Refer to Table A-2b, obtain the properties of...Draw P−v diagram for an Ideal diesel cycle as shown in Figure (1). Assuming constant specific heats...Draw the P−ν for an ideal Otto cycle as shown in Figure (1). Write the expression for compression...Determine the state 2 temperature in the polytropic compression process 1-2. T2=T1(v1v2)n−1 (I)...Draw the T−s diagram for regenerative Brayton cycle as shown in Figure (1). Consider, the pressure...Draw the P−v and T−s diagram for the given cycle. Thus, the P−v and T−s diagrams for the given cycle...The Carnot cycle is not a realistic model for a steam power plants. 1. Limiting of maximum...Draw the schematic diagram of the given ideal regenerative Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 1. Draw...Draw the schematic diagram of the given ideal regenerative Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 1. Draw...A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheatregenerative Rankine cycle with one reheater and two...Draw schematic diagram of single flash geothermal power plant as shown in Figure 1. Write the...Show the T−s diagram of the both cycle. Determine the temperature of gas cycle at state 6....Reconsider Prob. 1083. Determine which components of the combined cycle are the most wasteful of...Show the T−s diagram of the both cycle. Refer Figure 1. Consider the gas cycle (topping cycle) and...Consider a steam power plant that operates on a regenerative Rankine cycle and has a net power...Show the T-s diagram as in Figure (1). Express Prandtl number at state 8s. Pr8s=P8sP7Pr7 (I) Here,...A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheatregenerative Rankine cycle with one reheater and two...Draw the T−s diagram of the given ideal regenerative Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 1.Why do we study the reversed Carnot cycle even though it is not a realistic model for refrigeration...Show the T-s diagram for the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle as in Figure (1). Express...Show the T-s diagram for the refrigeration cycle as in Figure (1). Express specific enthalpy at...Show the T-s diagram for ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle as in Figure (1). From Figure...Show the T-s diagram for vapor-compression refrigeration cycle as in Figure (1). From Figure (1),...Show the T-s diagram for process as in Figure (1). From Figure (1), write the specific enthalpy at...Show the T-s diagram for compression refrigeration cycle as in Figure (1). From Figure (1), write...Show the T-s diagram for compression refrigeration cycle as in Figure (1). From Figure (1), write...Express the specific enthalpy at state 2 using Carnot efficiency. ηC=h2s−h1h2−h1 (I) Here, specific...Show the T-s diagram as in Figure (1). From Figure (1), write the specific enthalpy at state 6 is...Show the T-s diagram as in Figure (1). Express the temperature at state 2s. T2s=T1[P2P1](k−1)/k (I)...Show the T-s diagram as in Figure (1). From Figure (1), write the specific enthalpy at state 3 is...Show the T-s diagram for refrigeration system as in Figure (1). From Figure (1), write the specific...Show the T-s diagram as in Figure (1). Express the refrigeration load. Q˙L=m˙(h1−h4) (I) Here,...In ordinary differentials, the total derivative of the function is depends on a single variable...Write the equation of state of the given gas. P(v−a)=RT (I) Here, the temperature is T, the pressure...At ideal gas state, the enthalpy is the function of temperature only. Write the formula for...At ideal gas state, the enthalpy is the function of temperature only. Write the formula for...Write the general formula energy balance equation for closed system. E˙in−E˙out=ΔE˙system (I) Here,...Write formula for enthalpy departure factor (Zh). Zh=(hideal−h)T,PRTcr (I) Here, the enthalpy at...Write the energy rate balance equation for one inlet and one outlet system....Refer the table A-2E (c), “Ideal gas specific heats of various common gases”. The general empirical...Refer the table A-2 (c), “Ideal gas specific heats of various common gases”. The general empirical...Write formula for specific volume (v) in terms of compressibility factor (Z). v=ZRTP (I) Here, the...Write the equation of mass balance. min−me=Δmsystem (I) Here, the inlet mass is min, the exit mass...The mass fraction refers to the mass of a substance divided by the total mass of the mixture. It is...Refer to Table A-1, Obtain the molar masses of N2, He, CH4, and C2H6 as below: MN2=28.0...Write the equation to calculate the mole number of oxygen and nitrogen gas using an ideal gas...Refer to Table A-1E, Obtain the molar masses of O2,N2, CO2, and CH4 as below: MO2=32.0...Refer to Table A-2, obtain the constant-volume specific heats of the gases at room temperature....Refer to Table A-1E, Obtain the molar masses of N2,O2, H2O, and CO2 as below: MN2=28.0...Write a closed system energy balance for the gas mixture. Ein−Eout=ΔE↗0(steady)Ein=EoutQin−Wb,out=ΔH...Write the entropy balance equation to obtain the expression of entropy generation in terms of H2 and...Write the expression to caculate the mole number of He (NHe). NHe=mHeMHe (I) Here, molar mass of He...Write the expression to calculate the partial pressure of Ne (Ne). PNe=yNePm (I) Here, mixture...Write the expression to obtain the mole number of O2 (NO2). NO2=mO2MO2 (I) Here, molar mass of O2 is...What is the difference between dry air and atmospheric air?Express the specific humidity. ω1=cp(T2−T1)+ω2hfg2hg1−hf2=cp(T2−T1)+ω2hfg@21°Chg@26°C−hf@21°C (I)...Express initial partial pressure. Pν1=Pν2=ϕ1Pg1=ϕ1Psat@10°C (I) Here, partial pressure at state 2 is...Express the dew point temperature of the incoming air at a temperature of 32°C....Express initial partial pressure. Pν1=ϕ1Pg1=ϕ1Psat@32°C (I) Here, relative humidity at state 1 is...Saturated humid air at 70 psia and 200F is cooled to 100F as it flows through a 3-in-diameter pipe...Show the T-s diagram for the simple ideal vapour-compression refrigeration system. Express the mass...Express the mass flow rate of dry air at state 1. m˙a1=V˙1v1 (I) Here, volume flow rate at state 1...As the process is a steady flow and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the...As the process is a steady flow and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the...As the process is a steady flow and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the...As the process is a steady flow and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the...Express the mass flow rate of dry air at state 1. m˙a1=V˙1v1 (I) Here, volume flow rate at state 1...As the process is a steady flow and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the...Express the approximate chemical composition of gasoline. chemical composition of gasoline=C8H18...Express the total mass of the coal when the ash is substituted. mtotal=100−mash (I) Here, mass of...Express the total mass of the coal when the ash is substituted. mtotal=100−mash (I) Here, mass of...Express the number of moles of carbon. NC=mfCMC (I) Here, molar mass of carbon is MC and mole...Express the total mass of the coal when the ash is substituted. mtotal=100−mash (I) Here, mass of...Express the balanced equation....Write the energy balance equation using steady-flow equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total...Determine the volume of the CO in the combustion chamber. νCO=RTP (I) Here, the universal gas...Express the theoretical combustion equation of propane (C3H8) with stoichiometric amount of air....Write the energy balance equation using steady-flow equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total...Express the number of moles of carbon. NC=mCMC (I) Here, molar mass of carbon is MC and the mass of...Write the energy balance equation using steady-flow equation. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, the total...Conclusion: The reacting system depends upon the heat transfer, change in entropy principle relation...Express the standard-state Gibbs function change....Express the standard-state Gibbs function change. ΔG*(T)=vH2Og¯*H2O(T)−vH2g¯*H2(T)−vO2g¯*O2(T) (I)...Express the standard-state Gibbs function change. ΔG*(T)=vCO2g¯*CO2(T)−vCOg¯*CO(T)−vO2g¯*O2(T) (I)...Express the standard-state Gibbs function change. ΔG*(T)=vCOg¯*CO(T)+vO2g¯*O2(T)−vCO2g¯*CO2(T) (I)...Express the standard-state Gibbs function change....Write the expression for the volume of oxygen used per lbmol of carbon monoxide (vCO). vCO=RTP (I)...Write the stoichiometric equation for combustion of 1 kmol of liquid propane (C3H8)....Write the expression for the stoichiometric reaction for reaction 1. H2O⇌H2+12O2 … (I) Here, the...Write the stoichiometric reaction for dissociation of water. H2+1/2O2⇌H2O (I) From Equation (I),...Write the energy balance equation for the reported process. Ein−Eout=ΔEsystem (I) Here, input energy...Determine the stagnation temperature of ideal gas. T0=T+V22cp (I) Here, the static temperature of...Refer Table A-32, “One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with...Write the expression for the velocity of sound after the normal shock. c2=kRT2 (I) Here, velocity of...Determine the speed of sound at the exit. Ma2=V2c2c2=V2Ma2 (I) The exit velocity of the air flow in...Determine the inlet density of air. ρ1=P1RT1 (I) Here, the inlet pressure of air is P1, the...Determine the inlet density of air. ρ1=P1RT1 (I) Here, the inlet pressure of air is P1, the...For isentropic, The flow of steam through the nozzle is steady and isentropic. Write the expression...Write the Equation 17-38 as in text book (the relation between the pressures after shock and before...Write the given equation of state. P=RTv−b−av2 (I) Here, the pressure is P, the gas constant is R,...Write the formula for velocity of sound at the inlet conditions. c1=kRT1 (I) Here, speed of sound at...It is given that the initial velocity is negligible. Hence, the inlet properties are equal to the...Helium expands in a nozzle from 0.8 MPa, 500 K, and negligible velocity to 0.1 MPa. Calculate the...Write the formula of ratio of stagnation temperature to the static temperature at inlet of the duct....Determine the initial specific enthalpy of the isentropic converging-diverging nozzle. h1=(hf+x1hfg)...

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