comparing and contrasting the Arthurian Legends and J.R.R. Tolkien’s book The Fellowship of the Ring, it is almost like a medieval contest between the two with many of the similarities coming from the customs of the Middle Ages. A look at the make up of the groups involved, the moral code, the protagonist, the antagonist, the use of supernatural elements and the knightly quest involved in each book shows how alike they are but yet different.
The Arthurian Legends revolve around the life
The Role of Women in Sir Gawain and The Green Knight
Sir Gawain and The Green Knight is an example of medieval misogyny. Throughout Medieval literature, specifically Arthurian legends like Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the female characters, Guinevere, the Lady, and Morgan leFay are not portrayed as individuals but social constructs of what a woman should be. Guinevere plays a passive woman, a mere token of Arthur. The Lady is also a tool, but has an added role of temptress and adulteress
different depending on the era, culture, and the particular writer who is relating his version of the Arthurian legend.
Three Kinds of Arthur
There is much debate whether Arthur was an actual historical person. There is no absolute evidence, but it is possible that Arthur was a Briton or Romano-Briton king who led the Celts against the Anglo-Saxons in the early 8th century (Americana, Arthurian Romances, 1972). The kings of the medieval period were warlords that protected a particular area of
in English. It is a twenty-one book series written by Sir Thomas Malory in 1469-1470 describing in detail the problematic lives of the Arthurian legends.
Sir Thomas Malory was believed to be born in 1408, but no one really knows for sure. (New Standard M-86) He was an English author, compiler, and translator who was most known by his works on the Arthurian legends, and also the first great author of the English prose and epics. (Encarta, Malory) He was also a knight from Warwickshire who ended
Importance of Honor in Sir Thomas Malory’s King Arthur and his Knights
For centuries, the Arthurian legend has captivated an untold number of readers. What is it about Camelot that draws us into its complex code of chivalry and amusingly brute anecdotes? Human nature, as one can surmise from antiquated literature, has still not changed in the least—we still experience the boons and pitfalls of love, joy, envy, lust and sorrow. This certainly explains why the tantrums of Malory’s jealous Queen
LeMmorte d'Arthur : the history of King Arthur
and his noble knights of the Round Table, by Sir Thomas Malory, a book that
was written and published between 1469-1470, during the reign of King Edward
IV. Prior to this document, the exact origins of Arthurian legend are difficult to
trace reliably before the twelfth century, when Geoffrey of Monmouth produced
the History of the Kings of Britain, in which he devotes the last third of the book
to King Arthur, with the first two thirds leading up to this
Sir Gawain: The Ideal Knight
Throughout the Arthurian legends, Sir Gawain seems to be the epitome of a noble knight. He is always putting his king before himself, repeatedly sacrificing his own life in some way for King Arthur. He is an honorable knight that lives up to his word. This is evident in both Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and "The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell." In these stories, Gawain lives up to the expectations of a knight
the ultimate traitor to King Arthur. (Arthurian Legends) Guinevere also attempts diplomacy. (Arthurian Legends) Guinevere is a complex woman who was frequently at the center of the adventures of the Knights of the Round Table. (Day 112) Guinevere throws a dinner party for the entire Round Table to promote peace among the knights. (Arthurian Legends) Guinevere gives the party partially because she resents Lancelot, who has taken with another woman. (Arthurian Legends) Guinevere and Lancelot were the
Arthurian Literature: The Evolution of Merlin
In all the long history of literature, some fictional characters have loomed above others, written about again and again by various authors of various eras. Arthurian literature is one area of fiction that has always been popular for writers to recreate in new versions, and one of the most intriguing characters of all Arthurian literature is Merlin, the magician/ prophet who aids Arthur early in his reign. As the Arthurian saga develops
selflessness, courage and bravery, courteous, chivalry and devotion to his word and honor, and humility. Throughout the book, Sir Gawain’s heroic actions demonstrate qualities and principles that represent the true meaning of a Christian hero of the Arthurian times.
Sir Gawain appears as a real Christian hero from the very beginning of the book when he shows that he is capable of being selfless. When the huge, and muscular Green Knight entered the palace and immediately proposed his challenge, “most
society. Being an educated 19th century American gentleman, Hank believes it is up to him to make Arthurian England more like 19th century American. He tries to change the beliefs of the people and introduces 19th century technology. In the end, Hank fails in his quest to completely change everything about Arthurian England. Mark Twain’s usage of humor combined with Hank’s attempts to change Arthurian technology, religious beliefs and social structure, exemplifies that human’s beliefs are trained
Chivalry in Arthurian Legend
Merriam-Webster's on-line dictionary defines chivalry as "the system, spirit, or customs of medieval knighthood." As Leon Gautier, author of Chivalry, defines this "system" and "spirit" of knighthood by identifying rules of chivalry, two of which are well illustrated in Lanval, "TheWife of Bath's Tale," and "The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnel:" "Thou shalt never lie, and shall remain faithful to thy pledged word," and "Thou shalt be generous, and give largess
definitive picture that identifies Arthur's character. It is therefore necessary to look at a few different sources to get better insight into the character of Arthur, the once and future king.
Arthurian literature can be divided into two basic categories, pseudo-histories and romances. The main difference between the two is that pseudo-histories such as Wace and much of the Celtic work, for example, Geoffrey of Monmouth show Arthur as a strong,
occurrence of Merlin is in King Arthur's court. Here he is an advisor of Arthur as well as a prophet and repository of power (Morris 13). It is in this setting which most of the background of Merlin becomes public knowledge. Many stories of the Arthurian legend contain some reference to Merlin, as either a wizard or a prophet. As a magician, Merlin performed feats such as the moving of Stonehenge, the disguising of Uther Pendragon, and the crowning of King Arthur by the use of the sword in the stone
from whatever action they may interrupt.
The Mists of Avalon strives to maintain a plausible outlook on Arthurian myth. The health is also realistic, Gwenhwyfar almost dies from a miscarriage, and Arthur spends months recovering from a wound. This realism helps to make the characters attach to the reader on a personal level, rather than a superficial level.
In most Arthurian stories, Lancelot makes love to Gwenhwyfar out of lust not love, but in The Mists of Avalon it is a gift to him
Grail is a parody of Arthurian stories. It is a film that is not very elaborate on special effects, costumes and such as it even includes invisible horses with coconuts to mimic the sound of the “galloping” horses. All which indicate the low budget set on the production of the film. Although, the quality of the film does not suffer with it’s low budget since this adds uniqueness and more comical pieces to the film. The concepts triggered in the film come from elements of the Arthurian legends. The elements
many people can name off Arthur’s knights? Everyone knows Arthur’s name, but the details are less defined. Arthurian legend has many parts, the first being how Arthur came into being, then the most well-known part of the legend, but there is also his famous knights, the possibility of a historical Arthur, and how the legend has evolved over the ages.
One thing that is unique about the Arthurian legend is that it has a story to set up the main part of the legend. It traces back to Arthur’s grandfather
of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae, in 1155. There have been archaeological discoveries in the city of Chester, some of which have been claimed as prototypes of Arthurian descent. However, the English Heritage committee has stated that there is no archeological proof to show whether or not these can be considered of the Arthurian reign.
Possibly the most well known knight of all was Sir Lancelot. He was said to have been the greatest fighter and swordsman of all the other knights. At a very
Cornwall, and Brittany (Lunt 76). Other stories of chivalry that did not include Arthur existed in this time period as well. Although these stories were not recorded at first, they were known as far away as Italy, where mosaics and carvings depict Arthurian characters. The tales are often mentioned by early writers including William of Malmesbury, who distrusted them as "lying fables" (Bishop 32). Today literary critics believe that such folktales are sometimes based on real characters, but the stories
The Arthurian legend is one that has las lasted centuries. It has been changed and altered as different authors add to and change the story. Even though the details of the plot have changed over time there are certain aspects and themes that remain strong throughout the different versions. There are three main themes in the legend that have lasted different authors across different eras. The ideas of war, loyalty, and religion are common themes that run through the stories of Robert de Boron’s Prose
every aspect of the Medieval hierarchy. The Church affected rituals and moral principles of the people, as well as write their own stories to enlist to their ideologies. Literature links with the delegated character of the Medieval past, such as the Arthurian legend, influencing the interpretation of the period. King Arthur is recognized as legendary king of Britain, whose central figure spreads abroad from British history to centuries of Western literary works. He is known for leading British soldiers
Friday November 19, 2010
A Comparison of Arthurian Legend in Various Stories
Arthurian legend was a genre many writers used in Chaucer’s day. It is a story made of romances, heroism, and ballads mostly about Arthur’s chief knight Sir Gawain who was mainly a man of social and ethical virtue. Often time’s Arthurian legend is a story of a knight who fights the bad guy, learns a lesson, saves the day and get’s the girl. Although sometimes the knight may start
that their personal identities are the result of the events that they go through, taking into account that they emerge with a different understanding of the world as they progress.
It appears that Malory wanted readers to perceive the typical Arthurian hero as a character who is a victim of society's false values and who suffers primarily as a consequence of the fact that he is too na誰ve to understand that most people are only interested in exploiting his abilities. Lancelot's friends were actually
the story of King Arthur and his cohorts is a story that had been narrated in several books and even modified in movies which typical illustrates the lives of the Arthurian legends. The story “The Excalibur” cannot be compared with any of the other versions of the Arthurian tales ever in history. Sir Thomas Malory’s version of the Arthurian tale took a French style and name in which some elements of the movie are quite different from the original versions of the tale. Nonetheless, the significance of
Camelot. But in doing so he not only learns how to become a true knight, but this journey of knighthood develops him into a more experienced knight then those who have never left the safe haven of Camelot.
Early in the text we are introduced to the Arthurian court, the text reads “King Arthur’s Court where the great and the good of the land had gathered…. the most chivalrous and courteous knights known to Christendom; the most wonderful women to have walked in this world.” (Gawain, ll. 38-39,50-52) The
advice. This book is not a typical Medieval Romance, but it contains all the important aspects of one. This novel explains the reasoning and decisions that Arthur made from the perspective of the women involved. The Mists of Avalon is a twist on the Arthurian tales as told by the four women instrumental to the story: Gwynhefar, Arthur’s wife; Igraine, his mother; Viviane, the Lady of the Lake, High Priestess of Avalon; and Morgaine, his sister, lover, and heiress to Avalon. The story is told by each as
and heroism is a theme mankind takes pleasure in romanticizing. Arthurian Romance is the classic example of good versus evil, knights in shining armor, forbidden love, and sorcery; the basic elements of a romanticized tale. And in a dark time where religion clashed, empires fought in epic battles, and the people of Britain suffered from poverty and disease, Arthurian legend was needed to lift the spirits of the hopeless. Arthurian Romance is an accurate portrayal of the time period better known
Few works of literature or legend are as varied as that of King Arthur and his round table, forever retold by each generation. Without question, the defining work of Arthurian Literature is Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. Morte d'Arthur is a compilation of all the King Arthur legends that existed before Malory. Malory tried to bring all the stories together into one cohesive whole. Morte d'Arthur is a trove of stories about magical encounters and various quests that is loosely centered
Women in Beowulf and Arthurian Legend
A common theme in the stories we have read is that glory, happiness, and success come in cycles (this theme is commonly represented as "the wheel of fortune"). This theme is present in the Arthurian tales, as well as in Beowulf. Each story tells a tale (or part of a tale) of a rise to glory, and the proceeding fall to disarray. The men always were the kings and warriors, but the women played different roles in the different
stories. The women of Beowulf
The Sword in the Stone of the Arthurian Legend
King Arthur and the knights of the round table belong to a long line of books and stories of the Arthurian legend. Merlin, Lancelot, The lady of the lake, King Arthur, and Excaliber are all very important in the Arthurian legend. In this essay we will talk about King Arthur, the knights of the round table, and Merlin in the famous story, The sword in the stone.
The Sword in the stone is a book about an adopted child named wart. He is of
contains a great deal of such explicit comedy, but much of its humor works on a more subtle level, plot and dialogue shrewdly satirizing the unjustness of such Arthurian conventions as autocracy, severe social class distinctions, and vainglorious codes of chivalry. The movie also pokes fun at the rather demeaning view of women in traditional Arthurian legend. In Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur women primarily serve as figures of sexual temptation who bring great danger and suffering to the men that interact
Life and Culture on the Arthurian Legends
In many cases, authors write books in order to comment on the culture they live in. In addition, the personal life experiences of the author are also expressed in the work. In the case of the Arthurian Legends, the major contributor was Sir Thomas Malory, who lived from 1405 to 1471 (Abrams, 420). The first section of this paper will examine why Sir Thomas Malory should be considered the greatest contributor to the Arthurian Legends. The second section
Tales Of King Arthur
Since the romanticizing of the Arthurian legends by Geoffery of
Monmouth, the historian, during the twelfth century, the legendary 'king
of England' has been the source of inspiration for kings, poets, artists
and dreamers alike. The most famous work is probably Sir Thomas Malory's
Le Morte d'Arthur, completed around 1470, and published in many abridged
and complete versions. Malory's work contains in one the legend that had
been continually added to over the
Various Accounts of The Arthurian
"In my time I have been called many things: sister, lover, priestess, wise-woman,
queen." So begins Marion Zimmer Bradley's account of the Arthurian legend, which
places unusual emphasis on the character of Morgaine, otherwise known as Morgan Le
Fay. But who exactly is Morgan and how does she vary in the different accounts of the
In order to assess how
Sir Gawain in Transition
Sir Gawain has played a significant role in Arthurian legends since the Middle Ages. His first major appearance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight depicts Gawain as a warrior rather than a womanizing knight like others from King Arthur's court. Even in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Gawain focuses on his battle with the green knight rather than the advances of Bercilak's wife. During Gawain's visit to Bercilak's castle, his
Arthur, there has been an evolution in attitudes and the consequent treatment of magic in medieval literature. The discussion of magic involves not only the disparity between Christian and pagan tradition but also of gender roles, most notably in the Arthurian mythos. Beowulf, Marie De France's Bisclavret and Lanval, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Sit Thomas Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur involve the concept of magic and magical creatures and consequently, illustrate the treatment of magic of their time
The Arthurian legends are well known in today's society. However, very few people know of the "real" Arthur -- who he was and what his accomplishments were. This paper will establish a difference between legend and truth, show evidence to support and explain who the real Arthur was, and shed some light on the sometimes confusing Arthurian legends.
To establish any sort of idea that there was, in fact, a "real" Arthur, it is imperative to look over the legendary Arthur
Harry Potter series is mythological with allusions associated with Greek, the Arthurian legend, Biblical, Roman, medieval and many other folklore. For instance, a faithful dog of the Orion named Sirius in Greek mythology as to Sirius Black in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Sirius Black is a friend of Harry’s father and an Animagus (Garza), which is a wizard that can change into any animal at his willpower. From the books to the “movies” Harry Potter does have a connection with magical
The Middle Ages of Europe were governed by a system which is referred to
as feudalist. The people of this system flow together well; society in these
times require noble people to set the example for the younger. The ranks of the
noble include counts, lords, knights, kings,queens,etc. These noblemen can be
compared to as dueling politicians; they watch over their communities, keeping
everything orderly, and they fend off any attackers trying to besiege land. The
reserved in my brain for storing quotes and random facts from these two stories, both tales share many similar objects, plot devices, character attributes, and themes. Even though Python's “Holy Grail” is an exact historical representation of the Arthurian Grail legend, some might argue that the “Harry Potter” story is more reflective of the actual ancient texts than the 1974 film.
Harry has many things in common with King Arthur. Both characters were orphans raised with their cousins, and mentored
have discussed above – since Gawain is travelling to find where to submit himself, with no narrative interest in his battles along the way, rather than ‘adventuring’ to prove oneself without a pre-planned mission (as in much of Chrétien de Troyes’s Arthurian Romances).
On arriving at Hautdesert, Gawain continues in his passive submission, controlled by external forces. He is initially entirely subordinate to his host, Bertilak, due to the dictates of courtly manners:
‘Whyl I byde in yowre borȝe, be
dull edge swords.
The legacy of medieval chivalry was very significant, for the knight was the ancestor of the modern gentlemen. Thanks to chivalry’s courtly, military, and religious ethic, we derived our concept of the absolute gentlemen.
The Arthurian Romances are a group of tales that developed during the Middle Ages. Their main focus was on Arthur, King of the Britons and his knights. The legend is a combination of ancient Celtic mythology and possible historical truth.
The earliest references
Arthurian Features in That Hideous Strength
Tales change with every teller. Features may be added or subtracted, stories may be broken apart or combined. Often the story-teller will adapt the tale for his own purposes to emphasize some theme of his own. C. S. Lewis uses and modifies older sources in many ways in his novel That Hideous Strength, incorporating themes and portions of Arthurian literature to add color and emphasize the subjects of his plot.
but also tells the story of the women who stood behind
King Arthur during his infamous reign in the Middle Ages. This novel explains
the reasoning and decisions that Arthur made in the women's perspective. The
Mists of Avalon is a twist on the Arthurian tales as told by the four women
instrumental to the story: Gwenhwyfar, his wife; Igraine, his mother; Viviane,
the Lady of the Lake, High Priestess of Avalon; and his sister and lover,
heiress to Avalon, Morgaine. The story is told by each, as
collapse of the Roman Empire and the withdrawal of Roman
Legions from Britain. Authors often embellish the tales of King Arthur
to fit their own purposes. Through the centuries, the concept of
Arthur didn't stay the same, and there is no "standard" Arthurian
Legend (Dumville 9). The truth about King Arthur may never be known,
however there are many theories in which logical guesses concur with
the writings during that time.
King Arthur does not appear in the legends until around 1170 AD, when
(http://legendofkingarthur.co.uk/). There are various kinds of information stating whether King Arthur was truly real. There is said to have legends speaking of his mythical being and also people attempted to prove that there indeed was a King Arthur.
The Arthurian Legends reveal King Arthur, not as a historical figure, but as a mythical chivalrous king obtaining massive amounts of achievements. From his search for the Holy Grail to his perfect society in Camelot with his development of the Round Table, King
deny her convictions. The period’s tension between Catholicism and Protestantism made each
Regardless, Anne played the mercurial mistress. She flirted, debated, played games, and enjoyed revels, fulfilling what seemed as if the couple lived an Arthurian dream as predicted by Sir Thomas More upon Henry’s coronation. Drawing from her experience and learning from secularization of romance coincided with that of the Church. Anne faced two miscarriages, and the King’s interest dwindled. The man in
The focus on moral attitude shaping the character of the individual is then supported more by the similarities Malamud draws to Arthurian legend in the plot of the novel. Specifically, these similarities are found in the story of Gawain and the Green Knight as explained by critic Diane Andrews Henningfeld. As Gawain and the Green Knight appears to only be a story of Arthurian romance, The Natural appears to the reader as a hopeful novel on baseball. Henningfeld then claims that both, “These writers
What role did the great King Arthur play in the way English Literature is perceived? The Arthurian Legends reveal King Arthur as a chivalrous king and not as a historical figure but as a myth of mass amounts of achievements. From his search of the Holy Grail, to his perfect society in Camelot and his development of the Round Table, King Arthur’s legend displayed his heroic character. Through the many countless legends of the glorious King Arthur, England’s society underwent a drastic change in
Even though the Arthur legend is hundreds of years old, our culture today is still fascinated with the idea of the Round Table and the love triangle between Arthur, Lancelot, and Guinevere. There are movies and books galore to read about the different takes on the legend of Arthur. However, it makes one wonder if our culture really understands the Arthurian legend. Especially in the movies the central idea of a literary work can be lost. Compared to Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur