Through the works of Epicurus, Epictetus, and Aquinas, it is evident that their philosophies inherit a great deal of virtue. Although roughly specified, virtue is implanted within their different ideologies. From achieving happiness, stoic beliefs, and in respects to Christian idealism, virtue turns out to be the driving factor in determining the ideal meaning of life from the perspective of each philosopher and it gives them their value. Backed by firm evidence, it is notable that virtue is more
Rules of Life: Epictetus’ View
As rational beings, we can become conscious of the law that guides all things. Virtue consists in conscious agreement with the inevitable order of things. According to Epictetus’ The Enchiridion, one acts with the virtues of Stoicism: human imperfection, prudence, temperance, and courage. We can relate what Epictetus is saying to our own lives. It appears that some comfort comes in knowing that one has no control over the predetermined.
2.) When we debate about Epictetus and mills work we tend to agree with both philosophers but one of these philosophers ideas are better than the other. When it comes to Epictetus and Mills advice on the way people should live life is quite interesting. Epictetus advise us on the fact that some things are in our power and choice worthy we talk about clear thinking, right choices, right aims, good character traits. Stoics believe that if we develop the habit or disposition of getting our aims,
regarding Santiago's happiness, however, will be briefly touched on here. Santiago possesses the "noble nature" and "bright spirits" which are the "first and most important elements of happiness," according to Schopenhauer's The Wisdom of Life (21). Epictetus, through Rufus, speaks of happiness as having to do with a God-given ability to use external impressions and that when this ability is at its best, " . . . it is freedom, serenity, cheerfulness, steadfastness; it is . . . justice, and law, and self-control
Epictetus and Aristotle in Practice
Mankind has been searching for existential reasoning since our earliest beginnings. One of the biggest questions, the one that keeps me up at night, “How ought we to live?” will be explained from the viewpoints of Epictetus in his Enchiridion and Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics. In this paper, I will discuss both philosophies in principle and practice, while giving insight to how to they may function in a modern world situation. Although both
The internal things can be controlled, while the external can be harder to control. Some philosophers even believe that the external things cannot be controlled, and attempting to control them will just bring unhappiness.
The Stoic philosopher Epictetus is one such philosopher. In The Enchiridion he outlined how to live a good life as a stoic. Anything that is not one's own action is out of their control and should be ignored. He lists "Body, property, reputation, and command" as examples.1
hardest thing to do. But it gets easier to open up when you know them well.
Communication and relationships are inseparably connected because it involves interacting. “We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.” Epictetus, a Greek Philosopher meant that people need to take the time to genuinely listen with their ears rather than to just pretend to listen and not care. They have to find a way to be honest and express their feelings without lying because it ruins the
According to Epictetus, how should one face death – both one’s own death
and the death of people close to you? Compare and contrast this attitude
with the attitude of another figure we have studied in the course (e.g., Hector,
Achilles, Antigone, Socrates). Do you accept either of these attitudes? Why
In his handbook, Epictetus asserts that the gods created a perfectly just universe. Humans must align their beliefs with the wills of the gods and acquiesce to whatever happens in the world
Pg. 7) goes to explain the origination of CBT. He states
“The philosophical origins of cognitive therapy can be traced back to the Stoic philosophers, particularly Zeno of Citium (fourth century BC), Chrysippus, Cicero, Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius. Epictetus wrote in The Enchiridion, “Men are disturbed not by things but by the views which they take of them”. Like Stoicism, Eastern philosophies such as Taoism and Buddhism have emphasized that human emotions are based on ideas. Control
in Epictetus’s work, The Handbook. In this text, Epictetus discusses how he believes people can live a happy life, despite the hard conditions they are put through because not everything is within our power in life and it is best to accept what we can and let go of what we cannot. Therefore, in the novel, One Day In The Life of Ivan Denisovich, Shukhov despite his brutal conditions, contains a perspective that parallels what the philosopher Epictetus writes in his work; this philosophy unknowingly
a quality that made them superior to animals. In Epictetus’ Discourses, Epictetus supports rationality for that very reason:
When we act gluttonously, lewdly, rashly, sordidly, inconsiderately, into what are we sunk? Into cattle. What have we destroyed? The rational being. When we behave contentiously, injuriously, passionately, and violently, into what have we sunk? Into wild beasts…By all these means the nature of man is destroyed.
To Epictetus, reasoning was a special quality that all humans
A Comparative Essay Analysis of the Ethical Theories of Aristotle vs. his Contemporary, Epictetus.
Monday, October 19, 2015
The theory of ethics explore through various topics of human behaviour, involving the constructive guidance of concepts that are right or wrong in one’s performance. Many philosophers argue that people should be just and ethical because it is the only source of true and
can be divided into three periods: Old (300 - 129 BC.), middle (129 - 30 BC.), and New (30 BC. - AD 200). The foundations were laid by Zeno and were reshaped by his Greek and Roman followers (Comptons). Among the eminent Roman Stoics were Seneca, Epictetus, and the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, all of who provided valuable writings on the subject. Of special interest are Marcus Aurelius' "Meditations", which were private notebooks written during his military campaigns. He wrote "Meditations" as a relief
examples such as from the Mathew (23:9) reminds us “call no man father upon this earth for one is your father which is in heaven.” In Epicureanism “without the befall of Christian’s theology Epictetus has upon the absolute truth regarding our relationship with god”. The idea of “god the father” is Epictetus takes this one step further. He states that from god we have inherited a special attribute, “our minds”.
If our minds are truly a gift from God, then his true gift must have been thought, perception
case of great minds like Epicurus (342 – 270 B.C.E.) and Epictetus (50 – 130 C.E.), the road toward their common goal differed. Both Epicurus and Epictetus believe that it is in human nature to seek out pleasure and that happiness implicates serenity. However, Epicurus differs from Epictetus in that Epicurus does not believe that it is the virtues that bring about happiness, but rather, one’s own pleasure. While both Epicurus and Epictetus confer their opinions on happiness, it is consequently apparent
Education to Me
Health Care Administration
Why College Education is Important to Me
Am I free? I asked myself over and over again after reading a quote “Only the educated are free.” As concluded by Epictetus (55 AD - 135 AD), Discourse. I then realized I was not free. I want to be free, but how? I asked myself. Do I need to be rich or do I need to be the happiest man on earth? It finally occurred to me after pondering over it for some time. I need to
dynamic nature of philosophical thinking. The process of philosophy is “dialectical in the sense that ideas are continually analyzed in terms of their opposites, with the ultimate goal of creating a more enlightened synthesis.” (Chaffee, Ch1 p. 8) Epictetus observes that the philosophical process is powered by conflict bringing divergent opinions together into a dynamic interaction. Questions such as “Which ideas make most sense?” “Which are clearer?” “Best supported?” can all be approached using the
imperishable benefit.” The character of Marcus Aurelius is truly special, but was molded by many important people and figures in his life. With the absence of honor and duty in Rome, influences such as Junius Rusticus, a book called “The Discourses of Epictetus”, and the Roman Emperor Hadrian, led Marcus Aurelius to become one of the most important stoics and one of Rome’s greatest Emperors.
From the very beginning of his life, Marcus Aurelius Antonion Augustus was destine to become one of the worlds
Analysis of Moral Luck Views of Aristotle and Epictetus
Aristotle, the founder of western science, and Epictetus, one of the
greatest stoicists, both has their theories for the issue of "Moral
Luck". To have a basic idea about the topic, I believe we should
describe it from a non-philosophical point of view. After doing that
we can compare both Aristotle's and Epictetus' points of views and
distinguish between them with examples from "Into Thin Air"(ITA),
Commodus, but he really died of a plague during another war in which he was trying to defend the territory of Rome.
Throughout his childhood and early adulthood, Aurelius was taught by several talented teachers. When he was young, the great Epictetus tutored him, followed by a man named Q. Junius Rusticus, who would accompany Aurelius throughout much of his life. In 161 AD, Pius died, leaving Aurelius and Pius’ other adopted son, known as Verus, to rule together. The two brothers were quite different
definition of the word virtue. I knew that it meant doing what was morally right, but what was sometimes missing from my definition and my practice of virtue was the sincerity behind my actions. After reading the teachings of Plato, Aristotle, and Epictetus I have learned that more often than not I teeter towards the “seeming good” aspect of virtue rather than genuinely practicing a virtue for the sake of my soul and my happiness. In Plato’s The Apology, Socrates states that “virtue is the utmost importance
Epictetus was a philosopher that believed that some things were in human control and some things were out of human control. He believed that wisdom was the ability to be able to distinguish the two. He based his teachings on the principles of earlier Stoics: logic, ethics, and physics. In framing my argument, I believe that Epictetus would see Aristotle’s teachings kind of in favor with his but slightly different. For Aristotle, happiness was the goal of life. For Epictetus, happiness
Enchiridion, I realized that some of Epictetus’ precepts were very comparable to methods and thought patterns I’ve used in coping with my anxiety. The very first precept lists and differentiates what aspects of life are within and without the control of an individual, creating a structure in which to expand on. This is similar to the importance of order when living with anxiety; working out of precedent despite fear makes it easier to work every day. Epictetus also recognizes that issues can be understood
abstract idea of death. Two Hellenistic philosophers Epicurus and Epictetus take very different approaches to prove that death is insignificant and nothing to worry about. Epicurus argues that death is the unequivocal end of our existence, and Epictetus claims it is something that we have no control over. Both examine the nature of death in an attempt to achieve ataraxia or a tranquil state of mind. However, Epicurus and Epictetus fail to address the true emotional nature of death and its impact
Lucretius “popularized the materialist theories of Democritus and Leucippus” (Fiero 143). Stoicism was used not only to enforce Roman ideals, but also influenced the minds of people such as Marcus Aurelius. The Romans produced Stoic philosophers such as Epictetus, and Seneca. Greek philosophers provided the foundation, and the Romans adapted it to fit the needs of their culture, such as to “encourage the Roman sense of duty” (Fiero 143).
Romans and the Greeks share many of the same Gods and Goddesses,
Dictionary, (2009) Corpus Juris Civilis. [On-line] Available from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/corpus+juris+civilis. [Accessed 19th April 2012]
Graver, M. (2008) Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy: Epictetus. [On-line] Available from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epictetus/. [Accessed 20th April 2012]
Kalyvas, S.N. & Sambanis, N. (2012) Bosnia’s Civil War Origins and Violence Dynamics. [On-line] Available from: http://humansecuritygateway.com/documents/WB_BosniasCivilWar_OriginsViolenceDynamics
originated by Albert Ellis, Ph.D. in the mid-1950's. Ellis developed his approach in reaction to his disliking of the in-efficient and in-directive nature of Psychoanalysis. The philosophic origins of RET go back to the Stoic philosophers, including Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions found common ground in focusing on the "here and now", and on alleviating symptoms. CBT is a short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that takes a hands-on
the people that surround us.
Stoicism was established in approximately 300 B.C.E by Greek philosopher, and mathematician, Zeno, and included philosophers such as Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. (Soccio 196) The Stoic school of philosophy taught of the soul and how to become enriched with inner peace. The Stoics, and specifically Epictetus, believed only attempting to control what was personally controllable, while accepting fate to be the controller of what was personally uncontrollable, could bring
external things, are out of their control. When following the teachings of stoicism it is important to be aware of these positives and negatives so it can be used effectively.
The first line in The Hand Book of Epictetus says, “Some things are up to us and some are up to us,” (Epictetus, 11). This lines sums up the general teachings of stoicism. I think this line can be applied to all people and is important for people to realize. When a person realizes that they do not have control over everything
moral virtue is courage; courage is partaking the personality to do whatever it takes in order to live the good life. Aristotle wasn’t the only well know philosopher, so was Epictetus and his response to Plato’s question is that the highest goodness is tranquility.
Epictetus had been born a roman slave, and philosophy for Epictetus was a form of therapy to him. He mentions that the secret to peace and a pleasurable life style is that many things are in our control and others are not. He lists a thing
have found this “rule” adored by the families of the students, due to the healthier and beneficial lunch. These trends display the resentment of complete governmental control of food and limitations placed on dietary freedom.
The Greek Philosopher Epictetus once stated that, “Is freedom anything else than the right to live as we wish? Nothing else.” Following current society and modern trends, Americans dread being controlled and seek to express their freedom. John Stossel publicly expresses his hostility
forms of love; thus does always need to be obtained. Rather wisdom, the highest form of love according to Diotima and Socrates should be sought and revered. The concept of honoring life and love as it is, exemplified in the Handbook of Epictetus. In the Handbook Epictetus specifies “not to seek to have events happen as you want them to, but instead want them to happen as they do happen”. This concept Dionysus in the Bacchae of Euripides did not comprehend. He was embittered the Milles-Dave 2 people of
12 November 2014
Teach the Truth
We must not believe the many, who say that only free people ought to be educated, but we should rather believe the philosophers who say that only the educated are free.
Imagine- though it may be difficult- an English teacher, who is very enthusiastic about her work. She couldn’t be more excited to share her love of literature with her students. Imagine further, if you will, that she is teaching a class entitled
behavior therapy was Epictetus. He was one of the most influential philosophers of his time. He presented some fundamental concepts relating to human behavior and emotions, which laid the foundation for western psychotherapeutic approaches. After the death of Epictetus, no major development was made in the area of cognitive behavior therapy for almost 1800 years. This period is generally referred to as the Dark Ages of cognitive behavior therapy. Although, followers of Buddha and Epictetus continued to practice
Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, also known as Arrian, author of “The Campaigns of Alexander,” is also well known throughout history for his educational connection with philosopher Epictetus. This book was meant to be Arrian’s master piece; his claim to fame. Arrian created “The Campaigns of Alexander,” to depict the life and times of Alexander the Great (July 20, 356-June 10, 323 BC). Today Arrian’s “The Campaigns of Alexander,” is considered one of his greatest pieces of work and is recognized historically
In the Romans, the practice is manifold: Death painlessly for fear consciously face suffering and destruction itself (Tacitus in his Annals)
The Stoics, (Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius) Euthanasia look like this: Seneca: "It is preferable to take his own life, to a meaningless life and suffering." Epictetus preaches death as an affirmation of free will.
For practical purposes taken as a definition Euthanasia as follows:. A patient 's right to decide the manner and time of death
Stoicism: Epictetus & Seneca
Born of different backgrounds, upbringings, and experiences, Epictetus and Seneca are Roman philosophers who outwardly appear very different. Epictetus spent most of his youth as a slave while Seneca was born into money and became a tutor of Nero. Although these two men seem to be very dissimilar, they each shared a common purpose in studying philosophy and teaching people on how to live well. Each suggested different paths for how to do so. Epictetus suggests in his
components that became to be known as REBT. (Wilson, 2014) Ellis published books, articles, and then presented workshops around the globe about REBT. (Wilson, 2014)
The foundation of REBT according to Ellis came from the writings of philosopher Epictetus, where Epictetus mentioned that “people are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them.” (Wilson, 2014) Another contributor to REBT according to Ellis, were the writings of psychotherapist Alfred Adler, because he emphasized that behavior
you get angry. There must be some way where we can try to contain this disease we call “racism”, perhaps thinking in a philosophical manner will do so?
When people wrong us, Epictetus, in his collection of “Discourses, Fragments, Handbook”, says, that it is more appropriate to pity them than it is to be angry with them. Epictetus says this because we should see people who wrong us as having gone wrong somewhere, they misunderstand what is right and/or important, and therefore should be pitied and told
The Rational Way of Life
Epictetus’ Stoic Recommendation of Freedom
Freedom is an arbitrary concept that has been and will always be limited. The notion of freedom is possible among equals, however, equality itself is universally different. Arendt, a political theorist, believes political freedom manifests through action, her reliance on the ability to act implies that humans can tangibly live freely. Epictetus on the other hand, believes that all humans can be internally free if they had a stoic
justify Bradley's statement because of the "innocent" deaths, it is these innocent deaths which further support the fact that moral order is supreme. The Phrygian Stoic philosopher, Epictetus said it best, "Since it is order which shapes and regulates all other things, it ought not itself to be left in disorder" (Epictetus)
Bradley, A.C. Shakespearean Tragedy. London: Macmillan, 1905
living in harmony with themselves and others.
Epictetus was a Stoic philosopher who wrote, The Enchiridion, a manual which instructed people on how to live their life ethically and honorably on a social level. His belief was that regardless of personal conditions, people could live with pride and discipline. Epictetus tells us differentiating between what is in our own power to control and what is not is the key to a noble life (281).
Epictetus emphasized that people should not worry over
his Confessions fused the gap between Classical culture and Christianity.
Stoicism was a school of philosophy where those who practiced it believed that it was wrong to show any kind of emotion in any circumstance. Even in times of death, as Epictetus stated in the Enchiridion “for the opinion about death, that it is terrible is the terrible thing.”1 It was acceptable to feel some sympathy for someone else’s emotions, just not empathy, “Do not be unwilling to show him sympathy, and even if it
them disagree on what human fulfillment truly consists of. Some believe that fulfillment can fully be realized in this life, while others believe that it cannot be achieved in this life, and can only be achieved in a next life. In The Handbook, Epictetus, claims that fulfillment can be reached in this life, because human fulfillment consists of tranquility, which can be maintained in this life. On the contrary, in the Summa Theologica, Thomas states that fulfillment consists in the vision of the
God of Jews, Christians, and Muslims Vs Epictetus’ God:
One or Two Different Deities?
When looking at Epictetus’ work through the Handbook (The Encheiridon) and The Discourses of Epictetus, we find that there can be many interpretations that can be made on Epictetus’ god. One can interpret through these text above that Epictetus’ god is all-powerful, all-good being, answer the prayers of the pious, and watches over people therefore showing his god as a personal god—God is actively involved
Born of different stations, languages and creeds, Epictetus and Seneca are Roman philosophers who externally appear to be very different. Epictetus was born to a slave mother, sold as a slave himself and spent the majority of his youth as a slave in Rome. Seneca was born into money; he became tutor to a boy named Nero who later acquired position of Emperor of Rome in 54 A.D. Though these two men seem to be from very different worlds, they have a shared purpose in studying philosophy. The purpose
and peaceful apathy in response to the stressing events of life. Epictetus writes,
Remember that you ought to behave in life as you would at a banquet. As something is being passed around it comes to you; stretch out your hand and take a portion of it politely. It passes on; do not detain it. Or it has not come to you yet; do not project your desire to meet it, but wait until it comes in front of you. (490, 15)
Epictetus goes on to further mention the Stoic desire to completely reject such
Epictetus & Epicurus vs. Nietzsche
Both Epictetus and Epicurus agree that in order to live the best life possible, it is necessary to reduce human desires. Epicurus argued that if a person can reduce human desires and live a good life “you will live as a god among men”, similarly, Epictetus says that only this good life is one that is “free”. On the other hand, Friedrich Nietzsche criticizes traditional and Christian morality as being “hostile to life”.
Epictetus’ principle philosophy
Epictetus, the great Greek philosopher once said, “only the educated are free.” Epictetus was born a slave in Greece, and gained his freedom as he acquired knowledge. To those who are oppressed by the chains of slavery, education is a rarity. To oppressors, keeping slaves ignorant is ideal. African-American social reformer, Frederick Douglass, experienced the bondage of slavery and the influence education held in regards to gaining his freedom. Education was a major force for social change with regard
The idea of thoughts as they connect to behaviors can be traced back to Epictetus (55 AD -135 AD , Greek Stoic and Philosopher). He stated, “Men are not disturbed by things, but by the view which they take of them (Epictetus and Higgonson, 1944). Epictetus also wrote, “Do not strive for things occurring to occur as you wish, but wish things occurring as they occur, and you will flow well (Epictetus and Lebell, 1994).” In other words, see things for what they really are and good health