Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage of Development which impact the human development in humans. Erikson takes the importance of placing the social and cultural components of a human’s development experiences. Each of these theorists had various stages that went from just being born to adulthood. And I will compare and contrast each one, as well.
The first stage is birth to 1 years old and between Freud and Erikson it seems to be about the same, but different. For instance, Freud’s stage is of Oral in…
manual to action, and possesses the internal consistency that the major drive of human beings is indeed the point that they want to and are driven to relate. So while there are both pros and cons, the theory respectfully holds it ground.
Team Erikson will debate their position:
Jaime - The positive aspects of Erikson’s theory on individual personal characteristics is that it expanded on Freud’s theory of infantile development by adding to it other stages that we go through which affect our…
with these events will determine our future (Diessner, 2008).
Erikson’s theory covers the 8 stages of man, which as we have discussed might be based only on those with a Y chromosome, and might not be effective for those who do not. However, Erikson discusses the importance of trust,and how babies first successful social test is as simple as allowing the mother out of their sight. Each of the stages in his theory relates to an individuals insecurities is some way or another. Autonomy vs Shame…
environment plays a major role in the development of personality. Going beyond the of a child's early life, Erikson concentrated on broader issues of peer culture, school environment, and cultural values and ideals. This led him to study the period of adolescence, in which he documented the interaction of a person's inner feelings and impulses with the world that surrounds the person."
Erikson developed eight stages of human development. Briefly I would describe all eight my I will concentrate…
believing that “a man counts only as a man” (Erikson, P. 299). Hence, in another point of view, he abandoned his parents just as Erikson says, “it was the child who abandoned the mother, because he had been in such a hurry to become independent” (Erikson, P.296).
This abandonment also lead to another factor – rejections to intimate feelings. Erikson finds “not only the sorrow of having been abandoned but also the fear of committing to deep emotions” (Erikson, P.301) in cowboys because there is a mental…
stagnation, which is because the couple’s relationship has stagnated and has not advanced.
In the sixth scene is at the gas station, and the attended knows Borg from being his wife’s doctor for a long time. Borg and the attendant talk about how the attendant’s parents are doing and his wife is pregnant with a baby girl. Borg starts to pay for his gas the attendant tells Borg not to worry about it, that it was on him. Borg again tries to pay for the gas and the attendant tells him something’s cannot…
Erikson believed that during this age children begin realizing that they have a will and they begin to understand that their actions are their own. Children will begin to accept and proclaim their own independence. However, just like Freud, Erikson believed that if parents are too strict with their children, or punished them too harshly this could result with the child having unhealthy feelings of shame and doubt.
There is another similarity seen at another period in each theorist’s stages of…
Successful resolution of the problems presented in each stage was, to Erikson, the path to a mature personality. The conflict to be resolved in each lifecycle is reminiscent of a virtue or a vice, which Erikson described as weaknesses. (Hoare, 2009) Conn uses Erikson’s conflicts to illustrate the formation of ethics (Conn, 1977).
In the first stage, which he called infancy, the conflict was basic trust vs. basic mistrust, from which hope emerges with successful resolution of the conflict (Feist…
I liked playing dress up. My mom had bought me some children’s makeup. I would put on my clothes, makeup, plastic heels and purse. You couldn’t tell me anything. At this time there were five of us. So I didn’t have any issues playing with other children. I would like to play teacher with my younger brother. I had to occasionally make mud pies to keep his attention. I don’t believe I was that much of a talker. I may have asked a couple of questions here and there. I doubt if I was constantly asking…
Trust v Mistrust
infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping
Hope and Drive
Sensory Distortion / Withdrawal
2. Autonomy v Shame & Doubt
toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking
Willpower and Self-Control
Impulsivity / Compulsion
3. Initiative v Guilt
preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play
Purpose and Direction
Ruthlessness / Inhibition
4. Industry v Inferiority
The learning situation thus becomes a means of discovery as the child encounters something that is unknown, new, or problematical for the child. The achievement of understanding of this experiences produces an adaptation, and each adaptation made by the child is a discovery for him or her, an insight made through experience. Such a discovery process is ongoing and is not to be seen as a series of leaps from one insight to another. The process of discovery continues and builds on experiences already…
It allows an individual to regulate standards, embrace moral values and decides whether or not the ego has implemented problem-solving strategies that are acceptable (Shaffer et al, 2010; Wedding & Corsini, 2014). Ultimately, Freud believed that sex was the most important instinct influencing personality and any mental disturbance revolved around sexual conflicts that were suppressed from childhood. Furthermore, Freud believed that parents permitting too much or too little gratification of sexual…
It was this moment that Erik began his search for his own identity.
These feelings on not belonging would eventually force him to “create an identity out of being a stepson” (Friedman, 1999, p. 40). Although there was a disconnect from his step-father Erik still remained very close to his mother. These feelings of not belonging had affected Erik up into his schooling and adolescence. According to Friedman (1999), it was difficult during school times for Erik because he felt strange “being a German…
I would have to say this because I was very young and I didn’t know who I could trust. The older I got the more I struggled with this stage. I would say I struggled because you could never know who the right person was to trust. Another stage I would say I went through at this time is “Initiative Versus Guilt” (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman). This is when a child learns to build relationships and or has a hard time doing so. Although I was very social, I was unable to know how to make friends. I would…
In some cases, as Erikson explains, labeling and isolating deviants together creates an even worse problem than the initial crime. Prison systems are notorious for a hierarchical system of criminals, with those on top teaching and grooming the amateurs for worse crimes. With this in mind, Erikson looks at a much lesser yet historically relevant form of deviance; the Puritans’ detachment from the Church.
Erikson explains that to most English people of the 16th century, Puritans became an annoying…
movements, thus giving a child a since of independence. Although if a child is not rewarded properly or ridiculed for having accidents a child may have a negative out come later in life as a result (Cherry).
Erikson also took the psychoanalytic approach with his Psychosocial Theory. Erikson believed that people developed socially and where motivated by the desire to affiliate with other people. He also believed that people continued to develop through their entire life span with equal importance…
excessively upset if they need to wait for the satisfaction of having their needs met (Rose 2000, |
|p.57). The infant trusts their parent or caregiver to meet their needs, and according to Erikson, such a satisfactory outcome |
|signifies an infant’s first ‘psychosocial strength’, which Erikson describes theoretically as the virtue of ‘hope’ (Peterson 2004, |
Adolescents can be remarkably intolerant to peers or concepts which one may view as “different”. Erikson explains that such an intolerance to something abnormal or different may be a necessary defense against a sense of self-identity loss. However, this may be unavoidable at a time of life when ones body is changing its proportions drastically, and puberty is driving the body and imagination towards new impulses. In addition to an increased interest in intimacy with the other sex, one is…
are filled with a sense of gratification. Arlene Handler says that Erikson calls this “integrity” (The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson, 2002 (revised 2009)). This also allows for a quiet acceptance of death. People who accept death as inevitable do so with grace and ease. They look at their life and see an adventure with hills and valleys, but valleys that they were able to climb out of with might and determination. Erikson thought this to be remarkable and was amazed by elderly people’s resiliency…
Even though the child may begin to develop essential life skills, it is still usually in the stage of heavy dependency and frustrating incomprehension. Stage 2 is more likely to occur from the ages of two to three. In spite of this, I do agree with Erikson?s concept of parental encouragement. The child heavily relies on the emotions and reactions it gains from those around it. The toddler?s environment is a vital developmental aspect of life because it provides a child with the necessary amount of support…
During a person’s life span people go through a series of transitions and crises known as the developmental life-cycle (Erikson 1980). During the life-cycle there are a series of changes where the individual faces a transition from one state to another, came up with the eight stages of developmental crises, but he viewed these more as dilemmas rather than disasters (Erikson 1980).
Every individual moves through each stage dealing with each crises or dilemma in their own way it is this that…
My favorite theorist was Erik Erikson, as it is my opinion that he was the one who was closest to explaining our developmental stages. He has eight stages that he talks about. I will be discussing his eighth and
final stage, integrity vs despair. Erikson explains that in late adulthood, the 60’s onward, is a time when older adults look back and reflect on their lives. His theory states that when they look back on their lives and find a life well spent and have a positive perspective about it then…
The stage of development theorized by Erikson that is most identical to Chris is the industry versus inferiority stage. Several times in the movie Chris wonders if he is worth anything. He tells Gordy that he is never going to leave the town and go to college because he’s just not that smart like Gordy.
The stage of development theorized by Piaget that is most identical to Teddy is the concrete operational stage. An example of this in the movie is when the kids came to the railroad…
a teen going on their first date. At this stage, they have a very clear sense of both identity and self, and are secure in who they are. In this point of their life, people develop the ability to maintain intimate relationships with one another. Erikson believed that people need intimate relationships with others to fend off feelings of loneliness.
Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh stage. Having your first child is a good example, because at this stage people have a desire to create…
progress to the next developmental stage of life – autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 Months to 3 Years)
During the second stage of life, the overarching psychosocial crisis is autonomy vs. shame and doubt (Erikson, 1985). This is the period when toddlers learn the essential strengths of self-will and self-control through accomplishing basic tasks independently. As such, toddlers begin to develop finer motor skills and assert their autonomy to walk, talk,…
variety of internal developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is in the action of interacting with people in his environment and in cooperation with his peers” (2004).
Erik Erikson like Piaget had distinct stages of development assigned to specific ages. However Erikson ascribed development even into old age. Eight stages beginning with birth to old age described a conflict that had to be resolved by the person before moving on to the next, termed the epigenetic principle…
Erikson tells us that for
the children this age, it is
a time for play not for
Aspect: Social / Emotional
The boy did not want to
share controlling the
‘mouse‘ with his peer.
Erikson tells us children
in the intuitive phase (4 to
7 years) like him has a
tendency to focus
attention on one aspect
of object while ignoring
I tried to influence the
boy so that he wants to…
development which Erikson believes is comprised of all the fragments of roles tested and discarded in the search for the identity one will use to move into adulthood. When the identity is placed in peril, in other words, when the negative fragments from the past begin to surface, the individual might think these negative fragments cannot be contained within the positive identity. If this occurs, the wholeness of the person becomes at risk. At the very least, the adolescent feels disjointed (Erikson, 1975).…
Erikson argues that “Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.” (Erikson, class handout) Holly’s parents are clearly benefiting themselves through this stage, by working hard in re-establishing their relationship with Holly. If this is successful they will hopefully meet their…
learned how to collect data and follow all research processes to come to a conclusion. Altogether Freud was a physician, psychiatrist, scientist, and psychologist, but even more so a philosopher. Whatever Freud touched he illuminated.
Erik Erikson (1902-
Erikson was born to Danish parents in 1902. He was raised in German by his mother and his pediatricians. After Erik had grown to be a few years old he accepted the paediatrician and loved him as his father. When he left for college his main studies…
internalized the lessons and virtues we were raised to make our own, yet, grew up to become completely different beings. Nurture was what we were a result of. The early psychologist Erik Erikson attempted to develop a theory about personality development called psycho social theory of personality development. Obviously, Erikson is in favor of the nurture view he defined his theory as "how social factors interact with personality throughout the entire life span" (Sternberg 363). Personality development continues…
similar to an adult brain, more sophisticated cognitive skills, such as the ability to plan for the future and to evaluate the consequences of a decision, does not fully develop until late adolescence or young adulthood. Developmental Psychologist Erik Erikson conducted further research and uncovered an eight stage of personality development model; Erickson defined the adolescence stage as, “Identity vs. Identity Confusion.” At this stage of personality development, the youth in the process of testing,…
a child’s natural phenomena, play can provide children with the attributes of managing; developing and understanding through the interpretation of experiences via the body and mind, this ability allows children to use play as a “coping strategy” (Erikson 1965 in McMahon, 2009, p.21). Unfortunately children who encounter stressful circumstances may suffer in developmental wellbeing, which in turn…
As a teacher, I will try to explain that that there is nothing to fear and that the truth is always the best option.
To positively manipulate a certain situation or setting would also be one of my priorities as a teacher. There are, as Erikson put it, crises in life that children and even adults have to go through. In those situations, a teacher always has to remain calm and sensitive to the respective situation. If an argument ever happened to occur, I would try to let whoever is fighting resolve…
(Heap and Dryden 1991).
Despite the many arguments against induction personalisation, there is much evidence to substantiate its effectiveness. Many therapists believe that effective therapy relies on recognising and embracing individuality, with Erikson stating that 'everyone is hypnotizable' if the techniques applied are adapted to the individual. Karle and and Boys (1987 205) state that 'human beings differ at…
therefore requiring an individualized approach.
5. Low self-esteem can be a life threatening condition- resulting in death through suicide, drug abuse, alcoholism, murder, cancer, and in some cases physical breakdown. (Coping.org, 2004)
Erik Erikson was a very prominent German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, he explored three aspects of identity; ego identity (self), personal identity (personal aspects of the individual that differentiates them from others) and social identity…
shaping a personality. These factors are usually heredity or coming from their social environment.
Undoubtedly not many deny that environment or/and upbringing factor effect in one’s life. According to Erickson’s eight stages of ‘Ego Strength’, Erikson called these successful balanced outcomes 'Basic Virtues' or 'Basic Strengths'. He identified a certain word to symbolize the basic strength gained at each stage, which appear regularly…
but is not how it is for Eric. Lack of iniative is not the problem. Without a parental figure present, Eric was forced to take on too much iniative and make too many decisions on is own. He feels no guilt in being independent but according to Erikson, should feel inferior due to the lack of praise and reward from his mother.
According to Jean Piaget, and his stages of cognitive development, kids construct their knowledge of the world through reorganization and they move to higher levels…
Other psychoanalytical theorist – Erikson – contradicted Freud's idea based on biological stages by introducing child development in the context of social and cultural influences (Cunningham, 1993). Therefore we would talk about the psychosocial development as staged - the changes occur rapidly and each stage would be different from the previous one.
Years on, many researches and observations have been undertaken and new psychoanalytical theories started to reject Freud's and Erikson's staged…
The two other theorists, Jung and Levinson held similar views. Karl Jung and Daniel Levinson theorized that middle adulthood was time for balancing a person’s life much like Erikson. However, Jung sees as a time for discovery and reclaiming parts of the self that was repressed in the search for conformity in the first half of life. On the other hand, Daniel Levinson sees the life course more as a sequence of eras each with his own biopsychosocial character with major changes from one to the next…
is clear that cyberspace is limitless and this opens doors to find your true self. Since we can create different characters and environments, we are ‘playing’ a game of ourselves and discovering who we are and who we wish to be. Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson believed “…play [is] a ‘toy situation’ that allows us to reveal and commit ourselves in its unreality.’(Turkle, 1996) Cyberspace help people express themselves using words and, in a humanistic perspective, this process is called self-actualization…
well as have a sense of belonging. It describes activities and teaching strategies that are challenging but at the same time are within the children's reach. It also suggests giving children choices and a role in determining how they will learn.
As to Erik Erickson theory, it consists of a sequence of issues that need to be resolved for healthy development to occur. One of his issues is trust versus mistrust. In a creative curriculum classroom, teachers must establish a reliable safe…
opportunity to overcome Erikson's negative theory of isolation and to
continue through intimacy in a positive manner. (Turner & Helms, 1987).
These issues of marriage and courtship indicate a sense of achievement between
identity and intimacy as Erikson stresses it is important as "...before one can
achieve intimacy, it is essential to have a sense of identity, which should be
achieved in adolescence" (Gething, 1995, P.401). As this sense of identity and
intimacy develop the young adult should also…
1 of 1
______________ believed that genetic changes occur from natural selection.
The answer can be found in Section 2.6 Other Approaches, in Adult Development and Learning.
1 of 1
Changes based on biological and psychological forces are functions…
As a child gains initiative, the child is then most likely in middle to late childhood and experiencing a developmental stage Erikson called industry versus inferiority. At this stage, children master knowledge and educational skills with the help of an elementary school classroom. If children believe that they are not mastering skills at a level as same as their peers, children may develop a sense of inferiority which may also hinder the educational experience throughout a child’s entire life. When…
adolescents feel as if they have an imaginary audience and must be at their best at all times to ensure that their popularity is not affected. Additionally, adolescents face the conflict of identity versus role confusion which was developed by Erikson. They must not only develop a sense of who they are, but also where they belong in their culture. Also, adolescents often begin to become involved in romantic…
related to parenting that is supportive and stimulates adolescents to question and expand on their
reasoning, as well as with an authoritative parenting style (Eisenberg and Fabes, 1998).
Furthermore, the foundation for a coherent positive identity, as Erikson believed, originated in
the successful psychosocial outcomes of infancy and childhood, but it is not until late
adolescence that young people become absorbed in the task of establishing their identity as it is
during adolescence that individuals begin…
with the help of a deviant subculture, feeling they
have no other alternative.
The last part of the labelling theory is,’ deviant career’, this being
when the labelled criminal evolves into a complete, absolute deviant.
Kai T Erikson (1966) also highlights the way social reaction affects
the individual, he supports and reinforces what Becker suggests, he
further suggests that deviance in a society is essential, and is
beneficial for creating a boundary between good…
Child development, bullying
The weak, bully others….
If people throw stones at you take them up and build something
According to well known psychologist Erik Erikson every child passes through various stages of development at the respective ages in their life for example infancy, early childhood, preschool, school age, adolescence his is constant for the fast majority; with few exceptions. These stages have adverse effects on these children; development itself is a hurdle that every child has…
Sociologists have said that deviance is a social reality, that it is shared and learned like any aspect of culture. Emile Durkheim and other functionalists posed the notion that deviance is functional. He asserted that:
1. Deviance acts as a safety valve
2. Deviance inspires creativity
3. Deviance creates social change
4. Deviance outlines boundaries and rules
5. Deviance can promote social solidarity. (Haralambos, Holborn,van Krieken, Smith, 1996)