to this view, had Lenin lived, these policies would probably have been
reversed as political and economic stability was restored, and
certainly would not have given rise to the mass extermination of
millions of peasants and party members, which prevailed under Stalin
in the 1930s. In scrutinising the actions of Stalin, I have examined
especially how they differed from those of Lenin, and in what ways the
motives for similar actions changed.
parties of his time, Lenin limited membership to a small number of full-time revolutionaries (Haney 41). This dedication and tight organization later proved both useful and effective. From 1897 to 1917, he traveled all over Europe writing propaganda, organizing strikes, and encouraging revolution among the working class, especially in Russia (Lenin, V.I. 191). Lenin knew what he wanted, knew how to get it, and was willing to wait.
During World War I, the time was right and Lenin was the man. Czar…
The NEP resulted in huge
increases in production in all sectors of the Russian economy.
However in January 21st 1924 Lenin died. Lenin had a pragmatic and
realistic approach to problems. He was able to ‘seize the moment’
which was vital in the Bolsheviks gaining power. His organisation and
leadership of the Bolshevik party transformed it.
When Lenin died in January 1924 he had nominated Leon Trotsky as his
chosen successor. Yet it was Joseph Stalin who was eventually…
It would on the other hand, be untrue to suggest that Lenin did not
wished to take power. He certainly did, but only till a worker's state
was created, where individuals would contribute to the best of their
ability and the profits would be distrubuted according to need.
Lenin's life time has not allowed this to happen and with Stalin in
power this was not possible.
So, although it needs imagination to say that Lenin was bloodthirsty
and ruthless it is clear and not…
Bolsheviks, which Lenin ran ("Vladimir Lenin Biography"). While Lenin learned almost all there is to know about the communism idea from Plekhanov, he turned against him and they became rivals. Lenin was uprising fast in his movements for the revolutionary of Russia. Becoming the leader of the Bolsheviks group was a huge step forward for him. The only thing in his way was the opposing group ran by Plekhanov, the Mensheviks.
With knowledge and some experience under his belt, Lenin was ready to take…
only actions to actions, but in Stalin's case, his actions to Lenin's theory as well as to speculation, as to what Lenin may have done in practice, if he had lived longer.
The main aspects of Lenin's ideology were outlined in a number of written works, the most important of these were: "What Is To Be Done" (1902) and The State and Revolution (1917). In "What Is To Be Done?" Lenin presented the idea that although the Russian peasantry was a potential revolutionary force, it was not capable of developing…
the study of Lenin and Stalinism and
increased access to source material previously hidden has created a
more objective viewpoint that almost mediates between Soviet and right
wing Western historians, both identifying changes and lines of
continuity. One such historian writes ‘Excesses were the essence of
historical Stalinism, and they are what really require explanation’.
Identified here is the fact that many of the ideas and practices seen
under Lenin were continued…
their situation within the country. Lenin showed much more power and
control (often using violent measures). He enforced a strict structure
to society in order enforce communist ideals. For example if you were
to set up your own business you would be shot by the secret police as
this was disobeying the state. So both leaders used violence in order
to control the people thus creating an oppressed state. Lenin tended
to only resort to violence or discrimination…
Nicholas II abdicates on March 1st 1917 Lenin is in Switzerland. He is
now desperate to return to Russia to help shape the future of the
country. He feels that with the tsars' abdication leaving a
provisional government in control a revolution will be possible in
When Lenin returns to Russia on 3rd April 1917 he announces what is
known as the 'April Theses'. Lenin's programme was summed up in the
words 'Peace, Bread and Land'. Lenin promised the people these things…
Terror", due to the murders of thousands of Russian peasants, and the use of thousands more of these peasants or members of the White army into concentration camps as "enemies of the revolution." Lenin caused a terrible Famine in 1921 when his economic innovations began to take place.
By 1922, Lenin was the ruler Russia, He also eventually Russia into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the USSR. He died on January 21, 1924 due to a series of strokes that would eventually kill him. He…
Trotsky even helped Lenin to create and maintain the Bolshevik
dictatorship of Russia in 1917. Opposition could take over and execute
Lenin, if they won the Civil War. However Trotsky prevented it, by
organizing and forming huge Red Army in order to fight the whites to
make Lenin's dictatorship safe from overthrowing. There was a massive
rising in Kronstadt, because the sailors were unhappy with the lack of
progress, the famine and the terror and they demanded free speech…
social problems that arose from the end of the czarist
regime were dealt with by Lenin initially unsuccessfully. War communism, a
forced socialized economic policy began with the confiscation of surplus grain.
It then extended to all other products. Abusive detachments fought peasant
resistance with the terror of the Red Army, and in 1919 when they gained
control, with the Extraordinary Commission (Cheka). What Lenin had thought would
bring the triumph of communism rendered only misery and disorder…
Lenin then began abolishing all privately owned land, making it the property of the state, similar to that prompted by Marx in the Communist Manifesto. In addition Lenin sought to subsidize the government into one entity, which would be run by a select few individuals. This entity fell under the Marxist theory of the “state,” which foresaw the governing of the entire country and its economic and political outlook.6 In 1902, Lenin believed that the government should be a dictatorship. “The organization…
said anything wrong then he
dismissed the whole parliament. So I don't really think it was real
democracy, but this carried on for a while so the Tsar survived the
attempt of a revolution, which failed.
A well-respected man called Lenin went to a meeting in London and had
strict ideas on a complete change of who controlled…
Lenin, knowing Russia’s economic status quo and having to get ready for an upcoming civil war, had to stop the war against Germany no matter the cost. Thus having persuaded Trotsky and Kamanev, supporters of the war, in 1918, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk was accepted. However this came with high sacrificial value. Due to the treaty, Russia lost Riga, Lithuania, Estonia and parts of White Russia. This was a heavy blow to the already weakened economy as these areas were of major importance since they…
Goodbye Lenin! (2003) appropriates the individual as bound to his environment, threaded, through strong cultural codes, to his neighbour. Regardless of the system, communist or capitalist, and though our goals may deviate, we are all pursuing happiness and comfort, the tools used to attain this products of that society. That said, it is immediately legible whereabouts Becker wishes us to view the East German state as wholly negative, and he does this through several key scenes.
At the film's opening…
Taking place in East Germany, 1989, the movie is about a family consisting of a mother, son, and daughter. The mother, Christiane, is a strong socialist and a party member of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Christiane was dramatically shaken, but it only increased her passion for the GDR. One day, she witnesses her son, Alex, protesting in an anti-Berlin Wall demonstration and being apprehended by the police. Christiane suffers a heart attack from the sight and goes into a coma for 8 months…
Lenin had to get Russia out of the War by making peace with Germany.
He hoped that a Revolution in Russia would spark off other communist
revolutions in other countries, but this did not happen. Germany
seized land from Russia in this treaty taking 25% of its people, 27%
of its best farmland 26%of its railways and 70% of its industry.
There was a civil war in Russia the Reds(Bolsheviks) and the Whites
(supporters of the Tsar). The Bolsheviks only had a small army but the…
In his sixth point, he believes that all nations should leave Russian territory to let Russia determine “her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing” (Wilson). In the seventh point, he believes Belgium should also be “evacuated and restored” (Wilson). In the eighth point, he believes that “all French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored” (Wilson). In the ninth point…
Whether that contribution was positive or negative is left for future generations to decide. My achievemen
lies in the drive of my life, communism. It has been the one idea that has kept me going through the few years that I have inhabited this planet, the idea of a classless society. However the complete picture of my design did not take off until after I h
died, I am the un-denied leader of communism, taking it from mere theory into workable practice.
By pressing communist philosophies into…
What the old method failed to do however, was explain how capitalism exploited workers and the exploration began. It just criticized capitalism. Marx’s explanation of socialism answered these questions allowing him to understand the details of capitalism. Since Marx looked at socialism from a scientific perspective, it enabled him to examine capitalism from an historical perspective and its reason for emerging. In addition, it allowed Marx to make a prediction for capitalism, which was its downfall…
Russian Marxism" in 1883. In the late 1800s, one of Plekhanov's most passionate supporters was Vladimir Lenin. Lenin admired Plekhanov as the founder of Russian Marxism and strove to master the revolutionary activity and party building Plekhanov had begun. In 1900, when Lenin founded Iskra, Plekhanov wrote for the paper, and jointly, they supported proletarian revolution backed by Marxist theory. Lenin formed another Marxist party, known as the Russian Social Democratic Party. In August 1903, the Social…
obstacle for the
Bolsheviks, as due to the large scale membership of the Mensheviks,
Lenin became wary of a large party due to suspicion from the Okhrana,
as the Tsar was clamping down on any form of revolutionary party. It
was this that made Lenin think that the best way to move forward was
with a small, tight-knit party of professional revolutionaries.
However this still did not help as Lenin and his party were forced
into exile during the early 1900’s due to scares from the…
populations now have an even worse opinion of him and it
was not good for his popularity.
Kerensky underestimated the Bolshevik’s and Lenin. Once he had fought
off their uprising with Lenin’s plan of ‘Peace for the Army, Bread for
the Workers and Land for the Peasants’, he thought sending Lenin to
exile was sufficient. After Lenin accepted that he had lost his
chance to become President, an uprising in Petrograd (Kornilov Affair
– a point I will go onto in my next…
society into un-equal classes; in turn causing
resentment amongst the society and deterring the majorities support
for a communist way of life.
Russia's first leader, Lenin kept Marxist Communism as a basis of
government but interpreted the theology on his own terms (Marxist,
Leninist Communism). Lenin himself was not a worker fighting for the
workers plight, he was "an elite who took office and promised his
people the elimination of classes, guaranteed employment, the…
Lenin said, "The struggle of the Russian working class for it's liberation is a political struggle, and it's goal is the attainment of political liberty." (Pipes 45) Lenin used this form of propaganda, agitprop, to convey the need of a total reformation of Russia's government. He knew that this form of propaganda would work best. "Propaganda of agitation, being the most visible and widespread attracts all the attention." (Ellul 71) In his agitative propaganda Lenin cited specific enemies, or scapegoats…
supporter of Lenin; also he was the commissar for nationalities and
the general security of the communist party.
However, he also did have some points against him which shows why
Stalin shouldn’t have won the election. Firstly, Stalin wrote that he
himself should not be the successor of Lenin (this demonstrates how
loyal Stalin was to Lenin), he did not believe that he was good enough
to take over from Lenin, he did not think he was as good as Lenin,
The April Theses show a
very big contribution made by Lenin to the development of the party,
as Lenin's ideas were the basis for the Bolshevik Party's new slogans,
'Bread, Peace, Land' and 'All power to the soviets' were the messages
Russian public wanted to hear, especially as shortages were not
getting any less. Lenin encouraged the Bolsheviks to put the message
out that the Bolsheviks would give people what they wanted most, the
message had not changed, but people were…
and he would be arrested and thrown into exile a numerous amount of times.
3. Stalin had gotten many of his ideas from Lenin. Lenin had even given him power in the Central Committee had placed him as an editor of their newspaper Pravada. When Lenin died, Stalin spread around about how close he had been to the dead leader to ensure more power. So overall, Stalin had used Lenin to gain more ground in the party which he did achieve.
4. Stalin translated to English is Man of Steel. I think he took…
brutal fact by such leaders as Lenin and Stalin. These utopian leaders or dictators adopted the word of Marx in an evil form. Marx himself did not intend for the theories and teachings that he set up to become the terms of those who were going to abuse them, Marx's communist ideas were far different. Overstreet states," Communism took a wrong turn with the advent of Lenin and Stalin." Lenin took Marxist ideas and made them into ideals of "Partyism". By doing this Lenin convinced the proletariat class…
were socialism, communism, and fascism. Socialism was never officially promoted, but the Bolsheviks, the elite group when Lenin was in power in Russia, thought socialism could be achieved by moderate reforms such as higher wages, increased suffrage, and social welfare. Communism was promoted by Lenin, his successor, and Stalin. Lenin developed the New Economic Policy, or NEP. Lenin just saw the New Economic Policy as a temporary retreat from communism. His successor put the Soviet Union back on the…
increased the popularity of the RCP and thus the public influence. Although not being the most important, Tsar Nicholas II was a key individual in bringing about the changing influence of the RCP, due to his actions acting as a springboard for Lenin.
Following Lenin, Stalin played the biggest party in changing the party influence, both political and socially. During Stalin’s time in power, up to 1945, the influence of the party plummeted significantly, resulting in the RCP having no say in the country’s…
later writers like Vladimir Lenin in his work Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. Lenin describes imperialism as the "product of highly developed industrial capitalism. It consists in the striving of every industrial capitalist nation to bring under its control or to annex larger and larger areas of...territory, irrespective of what nations inhabit those regions" (155). Though this imperial relationship between Europe and the under-developed world as defined by Lenin is certainly detectable…
opportunity to create monopolies in the newly conquered lands (Lenin). It was also necessary to find new sources of raw materials, in order to keep production going (Hobson). This was largely a result of the Industrial Revolution (Hobson). Increased demand for raw materials led to increased demand for imperialism (Lenin). Cecil Rhodes, a British advocate for imperialism, believed it would solve Englandís domestic economic problems (Lenin). People who were likely to gain wealth from colonization further…
a revolution, would need a strong, authoritarian government to
stabilise the country before full communism could take place. In
Revolutionary Russia Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin took this role. Lenin
was charismatic, a rousing speaker and inspired the serfs who were
renamed the proletariat. Trotsky was similar to Lenin and both upheld
the ideals of communism and wanted to make the lives of the workers
better and provide a fair…
Lenin was very close to the Webb's and they all shared similar theories. These people were more politically minded. Similar to Durkheim's ideas of collective consciousness, Lenin believed that the ideas of the ruling class became the ideas of the masses (Berger 111). Lenin focused on societal groups and how the individual is stuck within their class. He believed that the working class was being exploited and that society must work towards eliminating this confusion of who should be in charge…
However Lenin also had solutions to these problems through a more violent approach, this was repression. The cpnstituent assembly which had been promised by the provisional government took place as planned on 12 november 1917 and the result was that the social revolutionaries became the largest party in Russia. This made lenin fear was that the constituent assembly would challenge the newly Bolshevik rule so when the assembly rejected by 237 to 137 votes to be subservient to the decrees, Lenin took…
incredibly education who came from wealth. However, Lenin noticed Stalin’s dedication and loyalty and had come to the conclusion that this type of man was the type of people Bolsheviks needed in the early days. This choice would be one of many stones cast against Trotsky that would hinder his ability to take over from Lenin and be another reason why Joseph Stalin would eventually take over.
Something then began to occur in late 1920. Lenin was having trouble pushing his policies through. In…
decisions. Stalin was made dictator of Russia through the death of Lenin, and this is the only was the Russians would have put him into power.
In a quote provided by the book Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, people helped Stalin get into power by speeches like this one: “Comrades!!, It is time to tell the people the truth. Everyone in the party keeps talking about Lenin and Leninism. We’ve got to be honest with ourselves. Lenin died in 1924. How many years did he work in the party? What was accomplished…
Alexis of hemophilia. Russia was spending a lot of money on the war so they had to increase taxes. This meant that there was less food and m ore mouths to feed. Peasants started taking over landlord’s fields and crops for themselves. Lenin supported the peasants. Lenin was the leader of the soviets which was a council created of farmers and workers. The soviets created a political party called the Bolsheviks which created order #1. Order #1 said that soldiers should not listen to their generals. The…
translates to “Man of Steel”. In 1904, Stalin was deported to Siberia. Joseph escaped from the prison in Siberia, and continued to organize and carry out more strikes and demonstrations. Impressed by Stalin’s achievements and perseverance, Vladimir Lenin invited Stalin to meet him in Finland in 1905. Over the next eight years, Stalin was arrested four times for anti-tsarist activities, but managed to escape each time. Joseph moved to Russia and became the editor of “Pravda” in 1911, and was arrested…
solution was if people are working
for the good of everyone else then there will be no problems and
everyone will trust each other. These are Karl Marx’s views and how
they could be achieved.
Vladimir Ilch Ulyanov, also known as Lenin which was a secret
codename he had adapted so he could not be caught by the government on
plots to overthrow them, was brought up in a well educated middle
class home and he was the third out of six children. He left school
it must occur in an already well industrialized nation. Leninism/Stalinism takes the Marxist model and adjusts it slightly to take a non-industrialized nation into modernity while simultaneously creating the “workers eutopia” Lenin and Stalin did this mainly by force but Lenin also achieved this by using a quasi-capitalism called “The new economic policy”.
Classic liberalism/Capitalism finds its roots with the age of enlightenment and the emergence of the United States of America. The economic driving…
Russia was in, Jones and Tsar lived in luxury
at other people's expense.
This sparked off the next parallel. Old major from 'Animal Farm' with
two people in the Russian revolution, Marx and Lenin. Marx believed
that private ownership was wrong and everyone should be equal. It was
Lenin who adopted Marx's ideas and he said that the middle class
exploited the workers and should be overthrown. He understood that for
had no effective means
of suppressing the revolt, so this led to the Tsar’s abdication.
However this is not the most important cause for the Bolsheviks’
seizure of power in 1917 because Lenin persuaded people to join his
party and go against the government by using Marxist views.
Lenin was the…
This led to Lenin and Bolsheviks coming into power in 1917. The
Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communist party and under the leadership of
Lenin took control of government and outlawed all of the other political parties.
In 1918 they became the ruling party of Russia and formed a dictatorship so
they could ensure the Soviet transition from capitalism to socialism. The
communist party arose in opposition to both capitalism and socialists of the
Second International who had supported their capitalist…
were sympathetic to the Bolsheviks and their communist
regime. Both Lloyd George and Ramsey MacDonald had little enthusiasm
for Lenin but felt it would be better to get Russia back into a
commercial relationship with Europe to soften the Bolshevik regime
than to use military force. Conservative politicians however remained
suspicious of Lenin and wanted Russia kept in Diplomatic isolation for
a variety of reasons. Primarily they were concerned that communism
whether this had anything to do with his expulsion in 1899. During the
next two years his Marxism crystallized, and his first Marxist essays
appeared in a Georgian newspaper in 1901. At that time he was already
an enthusiastic defender of Lenin and the other orthodox Marxist
exiles who published the newspaper Iskra. His literary style was not
then distinguished; in fact, it never got much better.
Stalin was active in the revolutionary movement in Tiflis, Batum, and
His rise to prominence in the Soviet Union was characterized by his work and partnership with Lenin. Trotsky’s most significant accomplishments included his leadership of the Red Army and success in the February Revolution, which consolidated Bolshevik power. Trotsky’s ‘talent’ and ability’ was undoubted, however, it was insufficient to attain leadership of the Soviet Union. Following the death of Lenin, Lenin’s Testament confirmed Trotsky as the rightful successor, although his power struggle with…
accused of attempting to overthrow socialism and of the murder of Kirov, Bukharin was personally charged with attempting to assassinate Lenin. Bukharin tried to prove his loyalty to Stalin but failed on several occasions. Bukharin confessed to political responsibility for the crimes of which he was accused, however Bukharin never confessed to trying to assassinate Lenin. All attempts failed and Bukharin was sentenced to death. With the execution of Zinoviev, Kamenev and Bukharin, Stalin had shown that…