Known as a mental disorder a phobia is a persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid it. Phobias tend to affect the way people live their lives, for example, their working and social environments, considering that they last for a very long time and are capable to cause intense psychological physical stress. It is considered today the most common mental and anxiety disorder in the United States (Matig Mavissakalian & David H. Barlow 1981 pp…
Some areas where classical conditioning could be criticised are the
ethics involved with the experiments. The person who is to be
conditioned would experience an enormous amount of upset and
discomfort. It is said that a phobia can be unlearned; this process
is called extinction. I believe that for extinction to take place it
would be a longer and be even more traumatic process for the
participant than the original conditioning. This may well be the
A phobia is an irrational fear of an object or situation (“PhobiaFacts – Phobias”). Every fear is a phobia though there may not be an official name for that particular fear. For example, the fear of spiders is called Arachnophobia, but there is no official name for having a fear of birds that fly in the shape of a ‘V’. In other words, Arachnophobia is a recognized and understood phobia on both a scientific and literal level whereas the fear of birds flying in the shape of a ‘V’ does not yet have…
Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy - Little Hans
Chronological Summary of Events
Hans born. (April)
3 to 3 ¾ First reports.
3 ¼ to 3 ½ First visit to Gmunden. (Summer)
3 ½ Castration threat.
3 ½ Hanna born. (October)
3 ¾ First dream.
4 Removal to new flat.
4 ¼ to 4 ½ Second visit to Gmunden. Episode of biting horse. (Summer)
4 ¾ Episode of falling horse. Outbreak of phobia. (January)
5 End of analysis. (May)
Little Hans (Herbert Graf)…
A tendency towards phobias, especially panic attacks, may run in families. Genes appear to play a role in all cases of phobias. A person has three times the risk of developing a phobia if a close relative suffers from one. (Wood 516). From the phsycodynamic perspective, people develop phobias primarily as a defense against the anxiety they feel when sexual or aggressive impulses threaten to break into consciousness. If the anxiety can be displaced onto a feared object and if that object can be avoided…
However, phobia can even cause people to risk their health. For example, the fear of dentists can leave people suffering from it willing to risk the health of their teeth in order to avoid having to go through an exam or procedure ( MacKay). When one knows about an upcoming confrontation, it can be the reason why one can not sleep or finds it hard to focus on important tasks. Due the change in daily routine, this unrealistic fear can interfere with the ability to socialize, work, or go about everyday…
she is making a fool of herself. Her self-consciousness and anxiety rise to extremes. Many symptoms go hand in hand with this terrible phobia. The feelings that accompany a social phobia include anxiety, intense fear, negative thinking cycles, racing heart, blushing and trembling. In public places, such as work, meetings, or shopping, people with a social phobia feel that everyone is staring at them (even though, rationally, they know this is not true.)The socially anxious person can never relax…
frightened of them ever since Its long neck, beady eyes, webbed feet.. ugh.. I can picture it now. As I said, I had Anatidaephobia…now don’t laugh, I had the fear that somewhere somehow a duck was watching me.
Im Going to speak more on this specific phobia, but before I…
comes to Social phobia, a lot of experts think it has a direct link to alcoholism. Individuals who have social phobia, often deal with a lot of stress. These high stress factors are said to create an increased risk for abusing alcohol. People with social phobia often become depressed and sometimes lose a lot of self esteem. These are both factors that alcohol plays off of, so it is highly recommended that people with social phobia don’t drink alcohol.
People with specific phobias usually get them…
And those with a severe dental phobia will actually let their teeth rot
rather than visit the dentist (p522).
It is very important that people suffering from phobias be treated, in order to be able to enjoy their lives to a higher extent, literally speaking for those individuals suffering from acrophobia.
Claustrophobia and acrophobia are two types of phobias that are usually treated by therapists. Acrophobia is the situational phobia in which there is a fear of heights. Being on…
beneficial than the other in terms of reduction of symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD. Overall the signs of Travel Phobia and anxiety were reduced in both methods of treatments giving the researchers plenty of evidence for being successful in a trauma-focused treatment plan.
The study case of children phobia is not like others present before it, this case suggests that that to decrease a phobia is should be multi-method, multi-informant, and developmentally sensitive. Another aspect that differs from others…
Situational type phobias are fears of being in confined spaces (i.e. elevators) or being afraid of heights. An example of being afraid of heights is getting n roller coasters. Natural environment is being fearful of weather storms (i.e. thunder and lightning). Blood injection is a subject type under specific phobia because some individuals fear blood and/or going through medical procedures (i.e. giving blood). Animal type means to be afraid of animals. For instance, 30.5% of the United States society…
to have phobias than men. There are three basic kinds of phobias: agoraphobia (fear of situations in which escape may be difficult), social phobia, and specific phobias. The DSM-IV has separated phobic stimuli into four basic categories: animal, situational, blood injury, and nature-environment. (3)
Though the experience of phobias is relatively common and their physical characteristics are generally well understood, there is no real consensus on the neurobiological basis of phobias. Instead…
What causes a phobia?
There is currently insufficient research in the field of phobias to determine a definite, clear cause. What is known is that phobias are common in children and do not represent an abnormality. Phobias can start in childhood or adulthood. Some people have suddenly become terrified of things they've been doing for years, somewhat like a flight attendant that suddenly begins to have panic attacks on her 500th flight. In most cases, phobias are thought to branch from a confrontation…
Social phobia is a kind of disorder, which involves fear regarding societal situations and accomplishable destructive criticism. Social phobia is the greatest general psychiatric problem in epidemiological examination, with estimation of life time occurrence in western circle as more as 16%. Common phobia generally come out in adolescence and is associated with deep distress, destruction and comorbid problem. Females in clinical trials are higher possible than males to social anxiety…
of medications such as selective seretonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and beta blockers specifically for "performance phobias." Individuals may also benefit from behavioral therapy, which involves gradual exposure to feared situations (1).
However, some believe that the category of "social phobia" or "social anxiety" is not so clear-cut. For example, the diagnosis of social anxiety can be difficult because of its co-occurrence with…
of medicine. He recorded detailed descriptions of people with phobias. Over two thousand three-hundred years ago, he wrote of a man named Damocles who could not go near an overhang, or over a bridge, or even near a shallow body of water" (33). During the 1800s, people began to study how the mind works. Phobias were increasingly described in psychiatric studies and writings. For several decades, people wrote about and named many phobias. Many of those names are still used today. Judy Monroe states…
glucocorticoid exposure may damage the hippocampus which increases a person’s risk for developing anxiety or affective disorders” (Irle et al., 2010). This team of researchers did MRI scans of individual’s brains, and found evidence that patients with social phobia had smaller amygdala and hippocampus areas in their brains. Fear is a very common emotion to experience, and in many ways can be beneficial (Fears, foibles and,” 2010). Children should be fearful of speeding cars and strangers. Adults should fear…
To eat her supper she would submerge her entire head in a bowl and
would only come up for air once it was all slurped up. When tomato
soup was her supper she reminded me of a flesh eating vampire since
her face was covered in that blood red tomato soup. Her enormous
appetite explains why the ground shakes every-time she walks, and why
Birmingham and Leister were put on earthquake alerts. The earthquakes
that she created measured five point two on the Richter scale,
There is little biographical information on Salinger since he insisted on preserving his life private. Salinger would mislead by giving out false information and complicating the picture, but there is some information that is accepted as true. Salinger attended a public school in Manhattan and was considered an average student. At the age of thirteen, Salinger was enrolled on a prestigious school in Manhattan but was dismissed because of his failing grades. He then was sent to the inspiration…
Now let's look at a second type of phobias.)
II. The second type of phobia is the survival phobia.
A. A college student rides a three day train to school.
1. She is afraid of flying.
2. She has aerophobia.
B. A businessman had to quit his job when his office moved to the thirty-second floor of a building.
1. He could not ride in an elevator.
2. He had claustrophobia.
C. There are many more survival phobias.
1. Hypnophobia is the fear of sleep.
2. Electrophobia is the fear of…
fears, and stress. Phobic disorder, commonly known as phobia, is a type of anxiety disorder wherein the individual acquires an excessive and irrational fear of a particular object or situation, with the fear being out of proportion to the real threat. “The word [phobia] is derived from Phobos, the Greek god of fear, whose likeness was painted on masks and shields to frighten enemies in battle.” (Passer and Smith 537) Jennifer Ong defines phobia as a heightened sense of fear. Also, according to her…
Discuss issues of reliability and validity associated with the classification and diagnosis of phobic disorders (24 marks)
The biological explanation for the acquisition of phobic disorders establishes that phobias are caused by genetics, innate influences and the principles of biochemistry. This theory recognizes that an oversensitive fear response may be inherited, causing abnormal levels of anxiety. This is illustrated in the basis of inheritance, particularly the adrenergic theory that convicts…
It is thought to be the most serious of all phobias.
There are many elements that make up the fear response. Cognitive
elements (the expectation of impending harm), Somatic elements (the
body's emergency reactions to danger and changes in appearance - the
sympathetic nervous system is activated, releasing adrenaline),
Emotional elements (the feelings of dread, terror and panic) and
Behavioural elements (usually fleeing or freezing).
2. The Clinical Characteristics…
it will present the effectiveness of certain therapies for each type of anxiety disorders through past cases and studies.
Different types of anxiety disorders
Phobia is a disproportionate and intense fear of a specific object or situation. There are numerous types of phobias. Here we will talk about some of the various phobias - such as…
Some compulsions that are caused by OCD are;
Depression, anxiety, aggression, deception, phobias, double checking, sleep disturbances,
washing excessively, appetite disorders, self mutilation, and other rituals.
The three main types of aggressive behavior caused by OCD are mental, verbal,
and physical problems. The mental problems include violent images in the mind of the
person with OCD. Verbal problems are cursing, and yelling a lot. Finally physical
aggression is shown toward people…
Through his lengthy account, the reader learns to empathize with him, as he knows no better as his syndrome prevents him from overcoming such minor phobias that 'normal' children overcome through puberty or socialization. However, what makes him a fascinating narrator is how he has learnt to deal with some of his phobias - as he also cannot bear loud noises, physical contact, strange people or unfamiliar places, he uses coping strategies such as 'groaning', 'screaming', 'hitting' fasting or even…
When a fear is not validated by the presence of actual danger or a threat, or by a realistic cause, and when it is also associated with a continuing evading of the circumstances, which lead to it, it is called a phobia. Phobias occur in several forms. A phobia is a recurring, impractical, paralyzing fear of a specific…
some of us experience awkwardly nervous.
The anxiety disorders consist of panic disorder (with and without a history of agoraphobia), agoraphobia (with and without a history of panic disorder), generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder,…
sexual nature of child development. In particular
he seems to have put to much importance on the Oedipus conflict. Freud
conducted a case study in a five-year-old boy named Hans. Hans had a
phobia of being bitten by a horse. Freud used his theory of the
Oedipus conflict to interpret his phobia as an unconscious fear of
being castrated by his father. It is worth mentioning that Hans father
was a follower and supporter of Freud's ideas.…
become more developed giving them a better understanding of the environment surrounding them. Some content available on television causes specific phobias which “include fear of insects, snakes, and dogs; escalators, elevators, and bridges; high places; and open spaces” as well as many others” (Healthofchildren.com, 2012). The development of these phobias causes elevated anxiety levels in children. Children who watch many hours of graphic content such as horror movies, nature programs, and news broadcasts…
an "often, sometimes, never" basis. The second questionnaire consisted of thirty-eight items "that are considered to reflect symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder and agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and specific phobias" (Muris, et al., 2001, P. 5). It was scored on an "always, often, sometimes, never" scale. The third questionnaire consisted of twenty-seven questions, and measured…
It can be done with a therapist, helper, or alone, and begins with the smallest phobia, gradually working up to more difficult tasks. This is where clients learn to manage their fear firsthand, and we are always aware of the courage it takes for anyone to confront what they fear most - so we are gentle and go slowly. This therapy is especially helpful for driving and flying phobias, as well as fears of heights, bridges, elevators, being alone, and social situations. It is similar to systematic desensitization…
to social and maritalrelationship.
Anxiety is the predominant symptom in two conditions: panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.
In phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorders, also considered anxiety disorders, fear is experienced when an individual tries to master other symptoms. A phobia is an
irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that is so intense that it interferes with everday life. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts, images, ideas…
In psychology, these symptoms are called hylophobia or nyctohylophobia.
Hylophobia represents the concern of forests and is a specific phobia. Hylophobia, in someway, is very similar to Dendrophpbia, the fear of trees, Nyctophylophobia, the fear of dark wooded areas or of forests at night, and Xylophobia, the fear of wooden objects or forests. It is for any phobia that the degree of fear can be told through the sign varied by different persons. The usual symptoms are including anxiety, dread, irregular…
However, what makes him a fascinating narrator is how he has learnt to deal with some of his phobias - as he also cannot bear loud noises, physical contact, strange people or unfamiliar places, he uses coping strategies such as 'groaning', 'screaming', 'hitting' fasting or even 'crawling' into small spaces. We see his distress at being grabbed by the policeman at the scene of Wellington the dog's death, which results in initiating one of his coping strategies, 'hitting'. Later we learn, Christopher…
brings about an immediate reaction, causing the person to endure intense anxiety (nervousness) or to avoid the object or situation entirely. The distress associated with the phobia and/or the need to avoid the object or situation can significantly interfere with the person's ability to function. Adults with a specific phobia recognize that the fear is excessive or unreasonable, yet are unable to overcome it.PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS:- These illnesses affect an individual’s mind and alter a person's ability…
everyday life. Today I will tell you about the types of anxiety, the different treatment options you have, and how these disorders could affect your everyday life.
The six most common forms of anxiety are Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Phobias, Social Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, or GAD, is characterized by excessive worries about nonspecific life events, objects, and situations. People with GAD often have…
conferences for work, or restaurants.
Answer: Social Phobia
7. Orlando believes that the FBI is hunting him down because they want information from him. He reports that he receives telephone calls from FBI agents who are threatening to imprison him if he doesn’t give them the information they need. Orlando has stopped showering and shaving. He wears a tin foil hat so that the FBI agents cannot “steal his thoughts”.
Answer: Specific Phobia
8. Kristina has always been a very clean and neat person…
own experiences in that trust has led us both to develop phobias. I, myself, have never been able to overcome the struggle of maintaining my self-confidence in the presence of large audiences, during discussions or presentations. For example, my valedictorian speech posed a serious problem for me. Even the thought sent me into a dilemma. As one can see, I have come to the conclusion that trust can be held responsible for the numerous phobias that exist, since one most often lets pessimism make them…
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder), 300.02 Generalized Anxiety Disorder and
305.00 Alcohol Abuse, which according to the DSM-IV-TR, would all be listed in Axis I.
As I’ve explained above, Stan is very anxious around people and women in
particular, afraid, especially in social settings and talks about these fears in detail.
According to the DSM-IV-TR; adults with Social Phobia often recognize that the fear is
excessive or unreasonable. Common associated features of Social Phobia include
with one exception (below), leaving his theory in big trouble, as studies of adults can not contribute to a valid theory of child development.
Freud found evidence to support his theory when he analysed a phobia in a 5-year-old boy. This is called ‘the case of little Hans’. Hans had a phobia of being bitten by horses, especially ones that were white, with black around the mouth and wearing blinkers. Freud interpreted this as Hans’ fear of being castrated by his father. One time when Hans saw…
problem, but Freud used self-analysis on himself to determine the problems that he was having. He was addicted to cigars had a rotten sex life, had travel phobia and his father had just died. Freud at night after every patient had left would try it on himself he found that although he was not able to rid himself of everything he got rid of his travel phobia and traveled to Rome for his first time ever.
Freud also develop the edifice complex also known as penis envy in which your very…
* the importance of being special to someone, being able to express feelings, developing healthy dependence, developing healthy independence;
* nature and quality of early attachments;
* self-harm or risk of self-harm;
* phobias or psychological difficulties; fears or psychological difficulties such as persistent sadness or tearfulness;
* temperament, coping and adjusting abilities for example, after experiencing domestic violence, bereavement or family relationship…
Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep, or restless
D. The focus of the anxiety and worry is not confined to features of other Axis I disorder (such as social phobia, OCD, PTSD etc.)
E. The anxiety, worry, or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
F. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects…
which may cause drastic behavioral changes in order to avoid these attacks.
• A Phobia is an irrational fear and avoidance of an object or situation. Phobias are different from generalized anxiety disorders because a phobia has a fear response identified with a specific cause. The fear may be acknowledged as irrational or unnecessary, but the person is still unable to control the anxiety that results. Stimuli for phobia may be as varied as situations, animals, or everyday objects. For example, agoraphobia…
individual to integrate developing and different aspects of themselves over time.
Mental health issues can also be indicated threw individuals emotions, thinking and behaviour.
Common signs may include Depression, OCD, anxieties, Eating disorders, phobias etc...Common behaviours as a result of this may include self harm, panic attacks and suicidal thoughts.
Individuals with a mental health illness tend to experience discrimination due to misinformation, assumptions and stereotyping. Many people…
cry at different time and under different circumstances. As humans, we learn from our surroundings and are influenced by our peers and parents. Another example of the role of nurture explaining our behaviors is that fact that we learn our fears and phobias. The key difference is that nurture alters itself from the fact that our biological make up is the only explanation for our behavior.
Scientists still agree that biology does play a part in human behavior, however. Nature and nurture do not oppose…
People afflicted with GAD don't necessarily avoid
particular situations because of their disorder. They
are unlike individuals who suffer from more severe
types of anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and
severe phobias. If the impairment from GAD is mild,
they are usually able to work and function in most
social events. When the impairment is more severe, it
can be debilitating making it almost unbearable to
perform simple daily activities.
to be more adaptive to the client’s person and status.
The third negative that I found, was that it works best on issues that are in the recent past or present
day. Thus entailing that it will be of no use to deep seated past issues, like phobias, trauma or abuse. To
me this signals that it is a short term method, only to be applied to recent, mild issues, looking for a
‘Quick, short term, Fix’. Not to be used for long term, well rooted or…