In The History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides chronicles the events, battles, and democratic processes of the war between Athens and Sparta. Shortly after war broke out, Pericles delivered his funeral oration in honor of the courageous Athenians who already perished in battle. Through his funeral oration, Pericles reveals the true nature of Athenians. Ultimately, they were good natured since all the citizens of Athens willingly and dutifully served their country, and ultimately the common
people and he was unsure as to if he had been able to get through to the citizens of Athens. He states, "My task is now finished. I have performed it to the best of my ability, and in words, at least, the requirements of the law are now satisfied." (Thucydides, 109) The speech recounted the significant life that the departed lived and the great achievements that these people accomplished. Pericles spoke to the public about the soldiers who had just died. He wanted the citizens to remember the soldiers
other hand, Sophocles’ Antigone lessens such interactions and emphasizes the human role, while Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War completely ignores the notion of divine power, but focuses impartially on the actions of men and their consequences. Therefore, such difference of perspectives gives rise to the conflict between divine roles and human nature.
In History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides focused on the narration of factual and supported events without exaggeration as he indicates
SUBJECT: "Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War", The Landmark Thucydides ed. By Robert Strassler, NY, Touchstone, 1998.
1. General: Thucydides chronicles the Peloponnesian War from its onset, providing a detailed chronological military history relevant to ancient Greece. The historiography focuses on what can loosely be called a civil war, but it more accurately encompassed the shifts in population migration and political power throughout the region.
2. Author's Identity: Thucydides is an Athenian
between Lincoln’s Address and Thucydides’ Address
These two formal texts have both similarities and differences amongst each other. Both speeches serve a purpose of honor and recognition. They both honor soldiers for their service in the war who died for their country. But the differences are quite different themselves. In Lincoln's address he is more focused and determined to set the future for the Americans so the country can have a better purpose in life, while Thucydides was more factual and informational
Thucydides, one of the greatest historians ever, chronicled decades of war and tension between Athens and Sparta and, in doing so, became a pioneer in the subject of history. His "History of the Peloponnesian War" set a standard for scope, concision and accuracy that makes it a defining text of the historical genre. He depicted the strengths and weaknesses of democracy skillfully, writing objectively and with great insight. When explaining the events and outcome of the war, he took into consideration
Thucydides ignored social, economic and cultural matters and excluded topics that he felt unable to write about, such as women. Further inadequacies can be found throughout the History, especially when the search for truth seems to have become subordinate to artistic considerations. The narrative is punctuated by speeches, the primary literary device used in the 'History' and these are unreliable and subjective. In refusing to verify his sources we are forced to accept or reject
Thucydides' account of the Peloponnesian war served as a window into Athenian societal culture. Carrying the reader from Pericles' moving speech to the assembly, through Cleon and Diodotus' oratory battle over the fate of Mytilene, and finally to the Athenian proposal to the Melians, Thucydides detailed the transformation of Athens from a state based on justice and freedom to a empire with a corrupted soul. This corruption did not occur over night, but was the result of increasing tyrannical behavior
The Peloponnesian War was a conflict between the Greek city-states, Athens and Sparta, from 431 BC that brought an end to the Hellenic age of Pericles and his empire by the succession of Sparta by the end of the war. Thucydides is seen as a ‘proto-realist’, one of the first realists in the study of politics that wrote in a more theoretical sense, as well as the founding father of International Relations. His study on the History of the Peloponnesian War provides awareness of the conflict and various
of the Greeks to construct the trireme (Hale 2009). It was not until just before the Persian war that the Athenians also began to amass a fleet of triremes thanks to the war of Aegina, which brought on the "prospect of barbarian invasion" (1.14) (Thucydides 1996).
What we do know is that the Athenian navy in the archaic period did consist of triremes, but would have mostly constituted two smaller types of ships (Jordan 1975) rather than the overwhelming percentage of triremes seen in the classical
The Sicilian Expedition is the decisive event in the Peloponnesian war. In fact that is what motivated Thucydide's to record it in his historical records. Thucydides prophesized that it would be `the greatest in all Greek history' and "it was a major turning point for Athens',moreover, it was the `most glorious victory for the winners, and the worst calamity for the loosers.' The outcome was that Athens lost the war which lead to the eventual collapse of her empire and dignity. The Athenians lost
Thucydides versus Plato
Thucydides versus Plato on the nature of the Good Life
Plato and Thucydides both had strikingly different views on their approach on the good life. Some have claimed that Plato is making normative claims, whereas Thucydides is making empirical claims. Let's start by taking a look at Plato.
Plato's theory on the good life was based on the belief that everything has an objective or use that is typically suited for virtue, beauty, justice, and excellence of the precise
The “Clouds” and the “History of Peloponnesian War”
Undeniably, the ancient Greek society places a heavy emphasis on values and traditions. The two texts of the “Clouds” by Aristophanes and “History of the Peloponnesian war” by Thucydides, although contextually divergent, are actually conceptually convergent. Both texts are built around the central theme of the collapse of conventional values. While the breakdown of traditional values in the “History of the Peloponnesian war” is
There are many different variations about the plague’s origins, symptoms, and precautions. I question whether it was the plague that indeed killed thousands of people in every situation.
The Plagues discussed in the readings vary. In Thucydides’ The Great Plague at Athens, he says that the town of Piraeus was one of the first to catch the Plague. They believed the sickness coming over their town was from the water. They blamed it on Peloponnesians, accusing them of poisoning their wells
protection of the gods, and
'This kind of attitude is not going to be of much help to you in your
absurd conquest for safety at the moment'.
Thucydides portrays the Athenians in an arrogant light, which suggests
that they will get their comeuppance for such sacrilegious opinions.
Furthermore, Thucydides also highlights the scientific approach that
the Athenians have towards their domination of the Peloponnese,
suggesting that it is the 'law of nature', that
what it takes to balance the citizens somewhere between happy and scared, so to keep them from revolting while appearing united and strong discouraging others form invading. Thucydides shares a similar view of human nature, as he sees all people as being motivated by fear, honor, and self interest. Machiavelli and Thucydides both demonstrate how a ruler can use many aspects of human nature to their advantage when ruling a state.
The common thread that ties together all of Machiavelli's beliefs
1) According to Thucydides, during the civil war at Corcyra a re-evaluation of values took place in the populace (3.82). Explain the nature of these re-evaluations, and the reason(s) they took place.
Thucydides recounts the events that took place during the civil war in Corcyra. In the year 427 tensions between the Democrats and Oligarchs exploded into civil war, both sides hailing allies from all over the world for aid. At first the Oligarchs received aid from large a Peloponnesian naval fleet
decision-making and in last part I will talk about Socrates use of cross-examination to find out the meaning of the oracle’s message. As a source of information I am going to use Plutarch’s essays Pericles and Alcibiades, Plato’s Apology and Crito, and Thucydides’ Peloponnesian War.
The meaning of sophism. In Athens all young aristocrats were getting traditional education in gymnasium. They studied music, poetry, mathematics, athletics, etc. But for some wealthy aristocrats it was not the only education
Athens but it seems that he is not sure if he has been able to get through to the citizens of Athens. “My task is now finished. I have performed it to the best of my ability, and in words, at least, the requirements of the law are now satisfied.“ (Thucydides, 109) The speech told the significant life the departed lived and the great things they had achieved. Pericles addresses the public about the soldiers who have just died. He wants the citizens to remember the soldiers who have died but to forget
balance of power leans towards Sparta and her allies. Sparta already feared Athens’ growing power. Therefore, Sparta needed to check Athens’ control of the region. The need to keep a balance of power is the main reason of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides attains that Sparta’s fear of Athenian rule provided an unavoidable path to war. Athens controlled about half of the city-states; dominated much of the trade; and maintained a strong navy. Sparta kept a strong army and retained equal allies but
on which type of ethical model you use will change the picture. For Thucydides his view point seems to be that “Might is Right” versus Plato’s “Might for Right” as well as a search for what is right. Another way to differentiate the two would be to say one is for what I have the right to do and that makes it right verses what is the right thing to do and what makes it right.
To determine whether the claims that Thucydides is making are empirical or normative we must first define those terms
populists who sought "...private ambition and private profit...which were bad both for the Athenians themselves and their allies." (Thucydides). These self interested populist leaders with personal gain in mind established extensive internal political instability "...by quarrelling among themselves [and] began to bring confusion into the policy of the state." (Thucydides). Repeated opportunities to accept terms of peace after the battles of Pylos (425), Arginusae (406) and Aegospotami (405) were ignored
dramatically as she rose to become the leader of an empire. The
establishment of the Delian League marked the beginning of a
significant series of events, which lead to Athens’ rise to extreme
power. From the evidence of Thucydides and the inscriptions, it is
possible to track the progress of these events and the rapidly
changing treatment that Athens enforced upon her allies.
The Delian League was an establishment formed in 478 BC. A large
number of Greek
Thucydides indicates that people are indiscriminate about the stories or accounts they are told. They do not put them to the test. This is the case even with accounts that deal with their own country. Thucydides uses the example of the murder of Hipparchus. The Athenians believe that Hipparchus was a tyrant and was the ruler when he was killed by Harmodius and Aristogeiton. The fact of the matter is, Thucydides says, that it was Hipparchus older brother Hippias who was in power, not Hipparchus
rule of law, which apply equally in the society. However, for the purpose of this paper, we focus on discussions of ancient Greeks on the practice and theory of democracy as a system of government.
Appraisal for Democracy by Plato, Aristotle and Thucydides
Plato is one dominant figure in the history of democracy. It is important to note, however, that he is in fact pivotal for the crucial questions he asked about democracy. His character is so strong such that even after veering off the public’ s
Have you ever stopped to think that everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact? That everything we see is a perspective, not the truth? That’s the way Marcus Aurelius, a Roman Emperor, viewed the world. Thucydides, an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War, would most likely agree with him. At the beginning of The History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides clearly stated his aims as a writer of history. These aims were
power politics of the national interest. (Jack Donnelly, 2005:29)
Although Political Realism as a study of International Relations did not emerge until after WWII, it is possible to trace its roots in the history within the intellectual works of Thucydides, Machiavelli and Hobbes. Realism is based on an assumption that men as a unit is selfish and egocentric by its nature and is driven by the desire of power. Units are organized into states from which each and every one acts in their own national
The true essence of human nature is seen during times of great hardships as can be seen comparing Pericles' Funeral Oration and the plague in Thucydides', The History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides accounts for many different aspects of justice, power, and human nature through his text. The order, the style of his writing, choice of words, and relations of what he believes actually happened, allows the reader to make different inferences about the message he's trying to convey. The juxtaposition
assumption that the interaction of the states, and the way they ought to conduct relations among themselves, are dependent upon the nature of man. Thucydides' "History of the Peloponnesian War" is such a study of international relations. Not a philosophical work, it is considered of great importance within political and philosophical enquiry. In the "History," Thucydides attempts to disclose the underlying causes of the war between Athens and Sparta. He looks beyond the explicit clash of interest and Imperialist
perspective that Thucydides took to write History of the Peloponnesian War gave his work, on a first read, the impression that his opinion was removed to provide an objective analysis of the destruction of the greatness of Athens over the period of the war. He began with a “medical history” of how humanity structured the first societies based on the interplay between fear, interest, and honor. Then, progressed to how war devolved the great Athenian society. Which took Thucydides from revisiting eloquent
Education Inc., 2004.
Thucydides’ Vs. Plato: The Good Life
Two prominent Greeks, Thucydides and Plato analyzed and wrote critically about the ethical implications of life. Both philosophers had very differing perspectives on the nature of the Good Life. Some people believe that Thucydides made empirical claims, whereas others believe that Plato made normative claims. Each individual stated their own opinion on how one can achieve the Good Life.
Thucydides, a general of the Athenian army
Thucydides' Historical Technique
Thucydides has often been described as one of the fathers of history,
and possibly the first historian that can be used with any real
historical accuracy. His objectivity and lack of digressive
storytelling mark him out from previous historians such as Herodotus,
and Thucydides began a new era of historical writing. Although named
the father of history, Herodotus wrote in a literary style, rather
than the accurate telling of the facts
Compare and contrast Thucydides’ and Socrates’ analyses of the fate of Athenian democracy in war, of why the Athenians went to war, and of how and why they failed.
The Peloponnesian War was the turning point in Athenian hegemony in Ancient Greece. It was fought in 431 B.C. between the Delian League, led by Athens, and the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. According to Thucydides, Athens’ imposing hegemonic status and its overwhelming quest for more power made the Peloponnesian War and Athens’s
The Peloponnesian war (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens against the Peloponnesian led by Sparta. Thucydides famously claims that the war started “because the Spartans were afraid of further growth of Athenian power, seeing as they did have the greater part of Hellas was under the control of Athens”. The two main protagonists from opposing sides Lysander and Alcibiades had the most influential impact on the end of the war.
Lysander was appointed Spartan navarch for the Aegean
Analysis of Thucydides' Views on the Melian Dialogue
The Melian Dialogue is a debate between Melian and Athenian representatives concerning the sovereignty of Melos. The debate did not really occur-the arguments given by each side were of Thucydides own creation. Thus it is reasonable to assume that we can tease out Thucydides' own beliefs. In this paper, I will first extract Thucydides views from the Melian Dialogue and then analyze whether or not these views are well founded.
ARISTOTLE AND THUCYDIDES
Thucydides was an Athenian historian, general and political philosopher son of Olorus. He is considered as the father of the school of political realism. This is because he viewed the relations between countries as basing on might instead of right. Thucydides exhibited interest in developing an understanding of the human nature to seek explanations of behavior in crises such as plague, massacres, as in that of the Malians, and civil war (Dover, Thucydides: 105b, 22-31)
In this paper, I will argue that Thucydides believed that due to the flawed nature of humans, democracy, along with other forms of popular government, was also flawed and only successful under the guidance of a strong, monarch-like figure. By analyzing Thucydides’ personal remarks, political speeches, and the structure throughout History of the Peloponnesian War, this essay will accomplish three objectives. First, it will show how Thucydides’ statements show his belief that human nature was flawed
Thucydides and Homer: Cultures
Thucydides and Homer, though they lived a relatively short 300 years apart, wrote about very different Greek cultures. While the Greeks who Homer wrote about in The Iliad were, in many respects, dissimilar to the Greeks in Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War, this stands in marked contrast to the profound similarities that exist between contemporary cultures and those that Thucydides wrote of. There are, however, similarities between modern
Written by the Greek historian Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War is one that tells the story of the war (431-404 BC) which divided the Greek world between Athens and its allies and Lacedaemon. The Melian Dialogue presents two sides and two perspectives that of the Melians neutrality and that of the Athenians’ might. By Thucydides juxtaposing the Athenian’s position to that of the Melians, there is a clear conclusion of which side actions are tactically and morally acceptable. One would
that his demise was a tragedy to its people. Pericles will never be forgotten.
Thucydides who lived from (c. 460-c. 400 B.C) helped to contribute to our understanding of why history happened the way that it did. He applied reason to the understanding of history by coming up with a positive, creative way to explain history while enlightening further generations so that history would not repeat its self. Thucydides also helped to give background to the purpose of Pericles’s proposal. Pericles wanted
STUDENT ID: 1646764
MADS_6639 FORENSIC EXPERT
INSTRUCTOR: GEORGE THUCYDIDES
1. What are the three primary factors that determine whether evidence collected during an investigation will be admissible in court? Briefly discuss each of these factors.
During an investigation, the investigator has to prove the evidence genuinely as well as relevantly. The main function of admissibility is “Relevance”. There are a number of surprising factors whether
This tension leads to a war between Athens and Sparta, known as the Peloponnesian War. As a result, writers such as Thucydides, Plato, and Aristotle developed their own views on the effects of the war. Evidence presented shows that the philosophers' views are still relevant to today's world.
Thucydides discusses his method of recording and understanding history. Thucydides admits that it is hard for him and those who reported to him to recollect the exact words from the speeches made before
established their legacy.
Discuss the issues present in the Melian Debate (Thucydides, Week Seven). What was argued in this debate? What do you think of the outcome? What side would you have chosen and why?
The Melian Debate, a dialogue that was recorded by Thucydides in the History of the Peloponnesian War, was the dramatic argument that stemmed from the struggle between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta (431–404 BC). Thucydides inserted the dramatic dialogues to account for the confrontation of
What are the implications of Thucydides' and/or Machiavelli's writings for US hegemony today?
Thucydides and Machiavelli's analysis of power can be applied to contemporary US foreign policy regarding the exercise of power and a diminished respect for law or ethics. Both philosophers play an important role in the Realist theory where they are generally taken to prove the mutually exclusive nature of ethics and politics as well as the inevitability of war. Firstly this essay will discuss arguments
Thucydides’ written history of the Mytilenian Debate and the Melian Dialogue reflects the reality of a period where morality is dependent on the exercise of power and those who possess it. The main theme running through the course of these two debates is that those with the power to act as they wish inherently have the power to dictate morality. The arguments that decide the fate of the Mytilene are made not strictly on the basis of morality but on how their power allows them to exercise
The Peloponnesian War and the Decline of Leadership in Athens
Thucydides set out to narrate the events of what he believed would be a great war—one requiring great power amassed on both sides and great states to carry out. Greatness, for Thucydides, was measured most fundamentally in capital and military strength, but his history delves into almost every aspect of the war, including, quite prominently, its leaders. In Athens especially, leadership was vital to the war effort because the city’s
important to study Thucydides because Thucydides can help us to understand the way politics work in the world today.This should come later – it is not an introduction to a whole paper – always assume your reader is not familiar with your topic In his book titled, The History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides brings to light, some of the causes of the war, as well as some of the consequences of the war. (This is a good opening sentence. It introduces the reader to the topic) Thucydides analyzed the Peloponnesian
Paper about Thucydides versus Plato on the nature of the Good Life
1: Thucydides versus Plato on the nature of the Good Life. Some have claimed that Thucydides is making empirical claims, whereas Plato is making normative claims. Is that true? Support your answer in your paper.
Plato and Thucydides together had strikingly dissimilar views on their tactic on the good life. Many have demanded that Plato is making normative rights, whereas Thucydides has made empirical claims. Let's first take
any Peloponnesian ships whilst aiding those from Athens on the route to Sicily . Thirdly they argued the naval power Corcyra would provide Athens would be indispensable, evident in Thucydides’ Histories as he documents a Corcyreans plea “….Thirdly yourself excepted, we are the greatest naval power in Hellas.” Thucydides was perhaps one of the most prominent statesmen and generals of Athens and is a highly regarded source for the Peloponnesian war. After being convinced by the threat that if they did
Thucydides Versus Plato: Differing Views of the Good Life
What is the true nature of the Good Life? Is it living life with concern for only oneself despite the possible consequences of one's action on others? Or might it involve
self-sacrifice in effort to do what one feels is right or just? Is it descriptive, or perhaps prescriptive? Two prominent Greeks, Thucydides and Plato, began providing answers to these questions over 25 centuries ago as they analyzed and wrote critically about