Graham v. John Deere Co.

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    and violates the Fourth Amendment. Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386, 394-96 (1989). There is no per se rule in determining whether an officer’s actions are reasonable under the Fourth Amendment. Scott, 550 U.S. at 383. The courts typically balance “the nature and quality of the intrusion on the individual’s Fourth Amendment interests against countervailing governmental interests at stake.” Bryan v. MacPherson, 630 F.3d 805, 823 (9th Cir. 2010) (quoting Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1, 8 (1985)). However

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    smaller companies can file. d) The obviousness contention of patents takes four primary concepts into consideration after Graham et al. v. John Deere Co.: 1) the scope of the prior art, 2) the level of ordinary skill in the art, 3) differences between the new inventions and prior art, 4)Evidence of not being obvious. These contentions of obviousness have since been expanded by KSR v. Teleflex. This introduced the idea of a person having ordinary skills in the arts. Subsequently this shifted the litmus

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