Retinal ganglion cell

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  • Axonal Death And Alzheimer 's Disease

    1477 Words  | 6 Pages

    diseases. It has been observed in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Axon degeneration does not necessarily have to involve the typical apoptotic pathway regardless of the morphological similarities to cells undergoing apoptosis. Yang et al. focused on axonal death in traumatic injury because it has been shown to be independent of the necroptotic pathway. This was discovered since treatment with necroptosis inhibitors did not protect axons. To reiterate

  • Enzyme Responsible For Regulating The Human Circadian Clock

    1242 Words  | 5 Pages

    The specific topic being addressed by the members of this group is: Describe the molecules responsible for regulating the human circadian clock and how they affect metabolism in the human body. Be sure to address how the circadian rhythms are governed, the signaling mechanisms used, and specific metabolic pathways. Note you do not need to discuss each step in the metabolic pathway (e.g. you don’t need to describe all ten steps of glycolysis if that’s a pathway that is affected,) but you should identify

  • The Circadian Rhythms

    649 Words  | 3 Pages

    Each day, when the sun rises and sets, mammals and plants alike conform together with a celestial rhythm that instructs the activities of the day. The human body, along with nearly all other mammals, endogenously oscillates on a rhythm that coincides with these daily activities. However, when mammals are placed in an environment void of nearly all outside influences, also known as zeitgebers, these rhythms continue to run at specified intervals. Thus, the endogenous rhythm must be governed by an

  • Adult Macula Essay

    1987 Words  | 8 Pages

    represents the retinal region of greatest visual acuity . The fovea has the highest density of cone photoreceptors .The long axons of the foveal cones form Henle’s layer. The central 500 mm of the fovea contains no retinal capillaries (the foveal avascular zone [FAZ]), making the fovea dependent on blood supply from the choriocapillaries.( Curcio CA,1990) The ora serrata delineates the anterior termination of the sensory retina. Cellular organization of the retina:

  • Visual System: Pros And Cones

    486 Words  | 2 Pages

    on the same ganglion cells, the cell only responds to the appropriate receptor based on the amount of illumination coming into the eye. (Purves et al., 2001). The placement of both the rods and cones on the ganglion cells allows for many of the differences between the two receptors. “The pathway from rods to ganglion cells involve a distinct class of bipolar cells (called rod bipolar) that, unlike cone bipolar cells, does not contact retinal ganglion cells. Instead, rod bipolar cells synapse with

  • Bipolar Cell Photoreceptors

    1816 Words  | 8 Pages

    Abstract Bipolar cells serve as a direct pathway linking the ganglion cells and the photoreceptors. There are many different types of bipolar cells, the most common being rod and cone, but all of the cells are either ON or OFF types. The cells can be distinguished by glutamate receptor expression, response to light and in their structural layout. Bipolar cells responds to light when initiated by the synapses of photoreceptors. The neurotransmitter released by these photoreceptors is glutamate. The

  • The Eyes Of The Eyes

    1001 Words  | 5 Pages

    They eye consists mainly of the cornea, lens, pupil, iris, retina, fluid-filled chamber, and the optic nerve. The cornea is a clear tissue that covers the front of the eye. The lens is a flexible structure that focuses light. The layer of receptor cells that line the back of the eye is called the retina. The pupil is the opening through which light enters the eye (Coolidge-Stolz, E. & Graff-Haight, D. 2000). The eye responds to a stimulus of light. Receptors in the retina convert the light stimulus

  • Glaucom Degenerative Disease

    834 Words  | 4 Pages

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, cupping of the optic nerve heads and visual field defects often related to elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma affects 70 million people worldwide, and constitutes the second largest cause of bilateral blindness in the world [1]. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology

  • Investigating The Molecular Mechanisms Responsible For Non Image Forming Visual Responses

    1568 Words  | 7 Pages

    Biol-572 10/24/2016 Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells: Architecture, Projections, and Intrinsic Photosensitivity S. Hattar, H.W. Liao, M. Takao, D.M. Berson, K.W. Yau 1. What is the objective/hypothesis/question of this study? (1 point) The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for non-image-forming visual responses, such as the coordination of the biological clock. Because retinal rod and cone cells are not required for non-image-forming visual

  • Mechanisms of Axon Guidance

    711 Words  | 3 Pages

    Axons are sensitive and their respond depend on the local environment. When the tectum is removed, retinal axons grow toward the missing tissue, demonstrating that optic axons utilize these neighbourhood signals as opposed to a long-run diffusible attractant from the tectum as they grow along the optic tract (Taylor, 1990). In the event of a small piece of the optic tract neuroepithelium is turned 90° preceding the axons enter it, then they become misoriented when they enter the pivoted transplant