There have been numerous studies conducted on the state and federal level by universities and law schools on hot spot policing and the affects of community policing; however most of the studies conducted were to analyze if the hot spot policing moved the criminal activity out of the high crime area to the surrounding areas. Most of the studies examined the recidivism of crime in previously designated hot spot areas where certain policing techniques were utilized to gain compliance with the laws not the prevention of crime. Is the law enforcement technique known as hot spot policing being properly utilized to remove and deter criminal offenses in a specific area and keeping offenders from re-offending? Or is law enforcement not utilizing information that is readily available to them to properly address repeat and violent crimes by targeting those whom are most likely to commit a specific crime while properly educating the communities affected by the crimes?
To have the ability to give a thorough and constructive review one must understand what hot spot policing is. As defined by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) “hot spot policing is a popular policing strategy that addresses crime by assigning limited police resources to areas where crimes are more highly concentrated.” In simpler context, where there is a lot of crime, law enforcement will send more officers and resources to the area until the illegal activity stops.
To define an area where the hot spot policing
Furthermore, evidence-Based Policing allows for the use of research findings to develop those strategies that are best designed to reduce crime and disorder while maintaining the trust and confidence of the public. we serve. Also, police officers should incorporate those research findings into every decision. Evidence based policing does not have all the answers; critical decision will have to be made at during certain times in a split second. Nevertheless, having a scientifically proven evidence-base to support and guide how officers operate, I believe can help reduce crime, keep officers safe and improve relations with the community. Additionally, it can encourage police officers to use proven strategies and methods to improve crime control, community relations, and internal management. Agencies also gain the knowledge and analytical skills, specifically advanced crime analytics, to generate their own
The Associations of Chiefs of Police created this website as a police informational site. It is an educational site that explains the hiring process, basic requirements, training and academy life, and skills candidates should process. The site also offer a virtual ride along. I can use this site to explain the training and academy life of a cadet.
Many people know of the police officers of today’s world and that it is their job to enforce the laws set by their government, but not many people know the history of your typical everyday United States police officer or how they came about. The idea for neither your everyday police officer nor his or her department they work for or how a police department operates, originated in the United States. Over the years though America has made changes and adapted its system over the years to make it more suitable for its countries beliefs and practices.
Many policing agencies have found this approach to be helpful. Agencies that were involved noted that specific community concerns had been addressed, overall reductions in crime had occurred, or community members had become less fearful as a result of the police interventions. Relevant problems will normally surface as issues brought to the attention of the police.
The routine activities theory is based on the concept of the crime triangle. This triangle consists of a “motivated offender a suitable target and the lack of guardianship” (Cohen & Felson, 1979). When Hot spot policing is employed its focus is directed at two of the three elements of the triangle. Those elements are the suitable target and the lack of a capable guardian (Hoover, 2014). Some of the major tenants of this perspective are geographic targeting, focused patrol, saturation patrol, and interactive programs. There are other tenants such as simple visibility and foot patrol but I will focus on the three mentioned above. Geographic targeting uses techniques which address crime based on the “hot spot” theory. Hot spots are another
Hot spots policing revolves around the idea that crime is focused in small problem locales, and that crime can be more efficiently reduced if police concentrate their efforts on those smaller areas (Papachristos & Hureau, 2012). By stopping crime in smaller areas, it is easy to prevent it from growing in larger parts. Activities like patrolling high crime areas and presence of law enforcement officers in the area are performed will reduced crime (Hot spots policing, 2017, What is the focus of the intervention?). “When authors calculated the overall
Problem-oriented policing presents an alternative approach to policing that has gained attention in recent years among many police agencies. Problem-oriented policing grew out of twenty years of research into police practices, and differs from traditional policing strategies in four significant ways.
Beginning in the 1990’s, crime numbers began to fall and and there are many explanations for the decrease in crime. To begin, the police began using new catching approaches by changing aspects such as an increase in enforcement of nuisance activities. Additionally, they began to invest in their technology and started to identify crime hot spots. The hot spots are where crime is found most often but never recognized.
The Frontline documentary, Policing the police, makes the argument that there are many problems with police departments across the United States and uses his correspondence with the Newark, New Jersey Police Department to make that point.
Police Departments are continuing to evolve to try to stay ahead if the criminal. Police technology is most influential changes relative to modern policing. Police agencies are using modern technology such as internet to convey information to the public, smart phones with the capacity to communicate with others from the field, and mobile computers to retrieve information, (Grant & Terry, 2012). Because police officers have mobile computers while in the field,
The Philadelphia foot patrol experiment: a randomized controlled trial of police patrol effectiveness in violent crime hotspots is an experiment that had over 200 foot patrol officers during the summer of 2009, in the Philadelphia area (Ratcliffe, 2011). This research covered 60 violent crime hotspots in twelve weeks (Ratcliffe, 2001). There was a noticeable reduction in the violent crimes within those area hotspots. Furthermore, 53% of violent crimes were prevented during the twelve weeks of the experiment (Ratcliffe, 2011). In conjunction the type of patrol that was utilized, was foot patrol in the hotspot areas, which was the independent variable. The dependent variable was the reduction
Since the founding of this country, to the wild west, and up to the present, the agenda of the policing bodies have been clear: to uphold and enforce the laws of our society. Of course the way they do this today had undergone changes from the first police forces of early America, law enforcement has seen trends come and go.
There have been several studies conducted on problem oriented policing which provide evidence that this method produces positive results. One example is the Jersey City Drug Market Analysis Experiment. In this experiment, Vice Police Officers were assigned to target areas (the variable) and control areas of high drug activity. Arrests were made in these areas and a follow-up was done with the landlords, local government regulatory agencies, and site-specific enforcement was recommended. After a week of follow up and monitoring the areas, the target area had a reduction in criminal activity, and it was found that this area fared better in reference to crime and deviant behavior compared to the control group (Weisburb et al., 2010).
Both Goldstein & McEwen, (2009) and Button, Sharples & Harper (2007) studies agree that crime mapping is effective in uncovering and monitoring crime