ADDICTION REVISION Biological Models of Addiction MODEL ONE: GENETICS McGue (1999) found that genes contribute to the development of alcohol dependence, with heritability estimates from 50-60% for both men and women. Noble et al (1991) found that the A1 variant of the DRD2 (Dopamine Receptor) was present in more than 2/3 of deceased alcoholics. Those with the A1 variant appear to have fewer dopamine receptors; they then turn to drugs and alcohol to increase their dopamine levels – compensating for the deficiency. |Evaluation of Genetics | |Strengths …show more content…
Relapse – Parrott (1998) also claims that a cigarette has an ongoing (chronic) effect, which increases the individuals stress levels. Their desire to ‘solve’ the problem causes relapse. |Evaluation of The Self-Medication Model | |Strengths |Limitations | |Gottdiener et al (2008) carried out a meta-analysis of ten studies and found |This model cannot explain why individuals without any major psychological | |participants with substance abuse disorders showed significant failure in ego|problems have substance abuse disorders – as there is nothing to ‘cure’. | |control (the ability to resist using drugs as a medicine); compared to a |Synoptic; Cause or consequence. | |control group. | | |Synoptic; Reliable and valid research – through the meta-analysis (above). | | MODEL TWO: EXPECTANCY THEORY
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I grew up being told that addiction runs in the family and that it is inherited. The Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism article (n.d.) does, in fact, mention that genetics play a role but other factors such as social, psychological, and environmental are also reasons to contribute to addiction. In turn, genes are not solely supported as the only cause for susceptibility. In fact, “[m]ost offspring of an alcoholic parent DO NOT develop alcohol use problems or disorders in their lifetime.” (Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism, n.d.)
Addiction- a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving. The difference between addiction and abuse is often times unclear. It’s a difficult call to make as a family member or a close friend that is dealing with a person like this in their life, but ultimately it is a call that only the addict can make for themselves. There are tons of different sources and tests and questions out there that can be done that can
“The statistical associations between genetic factors and alcohol abuse are very strong” (McNeece & DiNitto, 2012). However, there is still much debate over the validity of genetics as a definite cause for addiction. Perhaps, the reason for this is because the number of children of alcoholics that go on to become alcoholics is still small. Additionally, genetic predisposition cannot explain the number of cases of alcoholics that did not come from alcoholic parents or families. In fact, addiction can be so prominent, that it remains even after the drug use has ended (McNeece & DiNitto, 2012). Therefore, the biological theory should not be ruled as it is based on what takes place in the body. There is no other theory that can explain how a person could still have addiction symptoms when the substance is absent from their system. Predisposition implies that there is a mutation or malfunction in the body that appears to cause a craving or susceptibility to becoming addicted to a substance.
The nature-based view is that expression of addiction (phenotype) is based upon genetic predisposition (genotype). Numerous genetic studies on pedigree have been conducted over the years. The majority of the results of these studies indicate that monozygotic twins have higher concordance of addiction than dizygotic twins. More specifically, the more genes shared, the more
Prescott, C. A., Madden, P. A. F., & Stallings, M. C. (2006). Challenges in genetic studies of the etiology of substance use and substance use disorders: Introduction to the special issue. Behavior Genetics, 36(4), 473-482.
Based on the results of Swedish adoption studies, some researchers divide alcoholism into two types. Type I, the most common, occurs in both men and women and is associated with adult-onset alcohol dependence. This form, also known as "milieu-limited" alcoholism, appears to be the result of "genetic predisposition and environmental provocation," according to NIAAA's 1991 publication Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade--that is, the development of alcoholism in these cases is an interaction between inherited predisposition and the person's life situations.
Substance use has always been prevalent in society ever since recorded history in one way or another someone somewhere indulged. Scripture the wine flow like water Greeks and Romans drank as well, Chinese opium dens, and the American Indians even passed the peace pipe in sweat lodge rituals. Along with substance use another thing that hasn't changed are the different views and opinions surrounding these things? The United States wages war on drugs spending billions a year meanwhile manufacturing tobacco and alcohol as if they aren't harmful or addictive. Portugal on the other hand legalized all use and possession of all substances giving the power of free will and lowering the population of their
79). Overall, this is a problem, because there continues to be a lack of the public endorsement and support of those seeking treatment regardless of the addiction. Individuals suffer with addictive behaviors for many reasons that include genetic factors. These things are uncontrollable and are harder to be prevented. Inaba and Cohen (2014) stated, “One of the genes that signals a susceptibility to compulsive overreaction” (p. 7.47). The new definition of addiction non/substance and behavior is now based on the psychoactive drugs and certain behaviors that produce the surge of dopamine in the midbrain are biological substrate for addictive behavior (Smith, 2012). Overall, it is important to include all addictive behaviors and substance abuse when diagnosing individuals. It is more important to treat all conditions or addictions than it is to assume that it is not as an important or one is more problematic than one or the
I became interested in the Addictions Lab, because of Dr. Lara Ray. She was my Psych 127B professor and her class was one of the best Psychology classes I have ever taken. She talked about some of the work that the lab is doing and it took my attention. Consequently, I looked at the website and read some of the articles, which was even more interesting for me.
In order to fully understand addiction, one must examine the pathways and circuits in the brain as well as the genetic attributions that form this type of behavior. It is important to note that addiction has various forms such as with substances (alcohol, tobacco, drugs) and behavioral addictions (food, sex, shopping). With the forms listed and the many other types of addiction that are out there, they all contribute to alterations in brain structure and function. This article focuses on a particular addiction- cocaine addiction- and how it impacts gene expression and neuronal function. Like other substances of abuse, cocaine users have behaviors that cause them to compulsively take the drug with a loss of control in amount. Even with
One contemporary psychoanalytical view of substance abuse is that it is a defense against anxiety (Thombs D 2006). Addicts often abuse alcohol and other substances to guard against anxiety and other painful feelings like shame, guilt, loneliness and depression. Psychological problems including substance abuse disorders are viewed as a result of inhibited ability to make authentic, meaningful, and self directed choices about how to live.
In Addiction Training in Clinical Psychology: Are We Keeping up With the Rising Epidemic?, the authors and researchers discuss clinical psychology and its effectiveness when dealing with addiction. Clinical psychologists have always had an interest in addiction and its treatments. With treatments being focused into evidence-based aspects, the American Psychological Association and the Nation Institutes of Health formed programs such as the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Programs like the NIAAA and NIDA focused on alcohol and substance abuse and how different treatments worked and their effectiveness. Grants had been offered for psychology graduate students in
The complexity of the human brain creates mystery when determining the influence of neurophysiological factors and their role in the process of addiction. There is a proposed relationship between drug addiction and the mesolimbic dopamine system, with the mesolimbic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens considered the ‘reward centre’ of the human brain (Alcohol Rehab, 2011). A release of dopamine is necessary for ‘reward’ which is hypothesised to initiate the addiction cycle by providing positive reinforcement for drug self-administration (Feltenstein & See, 2009). Methamphetamine triggers the release of dopamine from synaptic vesicles which flood the synaptic cleft activating feelings of euphoria, well-being
When someone says, “You get that laugh or that smile from your father or your mother.” You don’t always believe them, but in some studies today it is said that if your parents or anyone in your family has a history of a drug addiction those traits in their genes have a decent chance of being passed down to the children causing problems for them later in life. According to the Drugs and Addiction article in the 2009 Addiction Journal, “Family, twin and adoption studies suggest that the heritability of substance use disorders is moderate to
Genetic factors play a major and very pertinent role in alcoholism. In actuality, genetic factors may account for half of the total risk for alcoholism. Alcoholism is such a complex disorder that a single gene is not likely to be the main culprit. However, researchers are investigating a number of inherited traits that make some individuals more susceptible to alcoholism than others. Some of the examples are listed below: