Addiction Psychology

4561 WordsApr 9, 201319 Pages
ADDICTION REVISION Biological Models of Addiction MODEL ONE: GENETICS McGue (1999) found that genes contribute to the development of alcohol dependence, with heritability estimates from 50-60% for both men and women. Noble et al (1991) found that the A1 variant of the DRD2 (Dopamine Receptor) was present in more than 2/3 of deceased alcoholics. Those with the A1 variant appear to have fewer dopamine receptors; they then turn to drugs and alcohol to increase their dopamine levels – compensating for the deficiency. |Evaluation of Genetics | |Strengths…show more content…
Relapse – Parrott (1998) also claims that a cigarette has an ongoing (chronic) effect, which increases the individuals stress levels. Their desire to ‘solve’ the problem causes relapse. |Evaluation of The Self-Medication Model | |Strengths |Limitations | |Gottdiener et al (2008) carried out a meta-analysis of ten studies and found |This model cannot explain why individuals without any major psychological | |participants with substance abuse disorders showed significant failure in ego|problems have substance abuse disorders – as there is nothing to ‘cure’. | |control (the ability to resist using drugs as a medicine); compared to a |Synoptic; Cause or consequence. | |control group. | | |Synoptic; Reliable and valid research – through the meta-analysis (above). | | MODEL TWO: EXPECTANCY THEORY
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