Adverse Birth Outcomes

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Adverse birth outcomes (ABO), such as preterm and low-birth weight (LBW) are often reactions to the inhalation of nicotine or use of other substances, domestic violence and poor dental hygiene resulting in gum disease. Other association has been linked to the attributes of socioeconomic status (SES), education level and occupation status on birth outcomes, as well. With these causes showing both biological and sociological consequences, it is then not surprising the effects that can be seen in all ethnicity. Along with these studies well noted, other research suggest that one particular racial group due to underlying factors may be at a greater disadvantage then the rest. The minority groups facing additional influence are that of the African-Americans (AA) women, whom studies show that the effects of stress and racial discrimination “direct or indirect” (Hilmert, Dominguez, Schetter, Srinivas, Glynn, Hobel, Sandman,2014). experienced throughout their lives, predisposes them to increase incidence of adverse birth. Suggesting a deeper look at AA women and stressors encountered in order to understand how to decrease adverse birth outcomes in this group Keywords: adverse birth outcome, African-Americans women, stress, racial discrimination Underlying Causes of Adverse Birth Outcome in African-Americans: Stress and Racial Discrimination A sustainable amount of research has been done throughout the years on the cause and effect of adverse birth outcomes. These

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