Anterior Cruciate Ligament ( Acl ) Injuries

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries comprise some of the highest incidents in athletic injuries, comprising up to a total of 3-5% (1) with nearly 70% coming from non-contact mechanisms. (2,3) Moreover, these injuries can lead to loss of time on the field in around 88% of the time (1). There is a substantial difference in gender as well, with female athletes being of higher risk to sustain an ACL injury. (4, 5, 6) Overall, ACL injuries can lead to early sport terminaton in athletes as well as serious disabilities in the non-athletic population (7).(Siegel’s anatomy, physiology, and pathol….(29)) To provide measurements for safe reintroductions of the athletes to their respected sports, Standard Functional Tests (SFT) have been developed. (8,9,10) Most of these tests combined complex movements together to test and measure strength and neuromuscular control of athletes with activities that resemble athletic movements such as jumping, landing, and cutting. No universal accepted protocol exists to date (11), however, hop tests are the most common used in determining return to play follow ACL reconstruction (12) and have shown good reliability (13,14) and validity (14). Hop tests include single leg hop (SLH), triple hop (TH), cross over hop (COH), and timed hops (15). The single leg hop has been studied extensively and can help detect function limitations for up to 54 weeks postoperatively with good test-retest reliability. (16,17,18,19,20) It has also been shown to be
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