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Biological Theories Of Criminology

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The field of criminology has been slow to give credit to biological theories of deviant behavior. Criminology was mainly in the field of the social science approach to crime as developed in sociology, it was pure sociology without any biology or psychology. One reason for this is because biological theories the link between biology and crime is not clear and biology on behavior of any kind is more often the result of an interaction among genetic, hormonal and other biological features of an individual and their social and physical environments (Schmalleger, 2012, p. 86). Biological theories within the field of criminology attempts to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectations through examination of individual characteristics. These theories are categorized within a paradigm called positivism or determinism.

Positivism were more than likely made up of scientists, mathematicians, anthropologists and astronomers. They studied behavior from a biological, psychological and sociological perspective (Gay, 2017). Biological theory maintains that the basic determinants of human behavior, including criminality are constitutionally or physiologically based and often inherited (Schmalleger, 2012, p. 87). There are major principles of biological theories and crime causation make certain fundamental assumptions. One assumption is that the brain is the organ of the mind and is where an individual's personality comes from. It has been compared to the organ of behavior and that no
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