Bioremediation Methods for Oil Spills

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Bioremediation Methods for Oil Spills Contents I. Introduction II. History of Bioremediation 1. ‘Courtship’ Period (Pre-1989) 2. ‘Honeymoon’ Period (1989-1991) 3. ‘Establishment’ Period (since 1992) III. The Biological and Chemical Processes of Bioremediation 1. Biodegradation a. Biological Process b. Degrading Species c. Chemical Process d. Need for Bioremediation 2. Bioremediation a. Seeding with Microbial Cultures b. Environmental Modification IV. Recent Applications of Bioremediation Techniques and their Effectiveness 1. Amoco Cadiz 2. Exxon Valdez 3. Mega Borg 4. Apex Barges 5. Arabian Gulf War V. Conclusion Bibliography Bioremediation Methods…show more content…
The story of bioremediation and its recent development as an oil spill response technology provides an interesting example of how a new environmental technology comes into being. Based on the U.S. experience (highly influenced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill), the history of bioremediation in spill response can be divided into three development periods (after Hoff, 1993): the ‘courtship’ period until 1989, the ‘honeymoon’ period from 1989 until 1991, and the ‘establishment’ period since 1992. 1. ‘Courtship’ Period (pre-1989) The first ‘courtship’ period was primarily a research period, when bioremediation was little known outside the microbiology or hazardous waste community. Many published articles from the 1970s and earlier documented the process of microbial degradation of oil, both in the laboratory and in field trials. A number of scientific papers on this topic were published during the 1970s and 1980s, including several review papers covering mechanisms of biodegradation, and papers presenting results from controlled field experiments measuring degradation rates in various environments. Several studies following major oil spills like the Amoco Cadiz measured oil degradation in the environment and confirmed previously published results from laboratory studies (Hoff, 1993). These works established a basic understanding of biodegradation of oil as an important component of the process known as
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