Plasma, red blood cells, antigens, and antibodies are just some of the components of blood that have to be studied before matching a donor and recipient for a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is a complex and long process that has a unique matching market of its own. In order to see if the blood is a safe match, technicians have to check for compatible blood types (the most preferable is type O), non-matching antigens, and finally cross-matching to see if the antibodies will attack the donor’s cells. All of this is done in a large market with blood from hundreds of thousands of donors. Due to the large number of options and room for the match to be ineffective or be rejected, there are numerous problems in this market. It is possible for there to be a mix up with the blood, or unknown factors could arise where the donor and recipient end up being a bad mix. There is an arduous, difficult process of making a match in this market, and this causes some problems that I will propose a few solutions for. First, there are many terms involved with blood and transfusions that should be understood before moving onto the substance of this essay. Some of the more important terms are antigens, antibodies, ABO groups, and Rh. Antigens are proteins/carbohydrates that are able to be recognized by our immune systems, then foreign antigens that the immune system detects are attacked and destroyed by antibodies. Antibodies are present in everyone. They are molecules in the immune system
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The first individual Mr. Green had antigens A, B and Rh present but no antibodies present thus concluding Mr. Green had AB+ type blood. AB+ blood can only be donated to those with the same blood type but can be recipient of any blood type (universal recipient). The second individual tested was Ms. Brown, her tests results indicated she had no antigens present on her blood which means she has antibodies A, B, and Rh in her blood. Ms. Brown’s blood type is O- making her a universal donor but can only be a recipient of O- blood during a transfusion. The third individual Mr. Smith had the presence of antigens A and Rh and antibodies B within his blood. Mr. Smith’s blood type is A+. People with A+ blood can only be a donor to people with A+ and AB+ blood, but can receive from blood types O+, O-, A+ and A-. The fourth and last individual tested was Mr. Jones his tests concluded he has B- type blood. Those results came from finding B antigens present as well antibodies A and Rh within his blood. Mr. Jones can donate blood to people with B+, B-, AB+
The difference in blood types was discovered in the 1900s. Blood transfusions can only be completed after matching blood types. Everyone does not carry the same blood type although blood type O is the most common in the United States (US). The four blood types we know of are type A, B, O and AB. The ABO blood type is determined genetically. Each blood type can be identified by the absence or presence of agglutinogens. With that being said, blood type O is a universal blood donor. Anyone with an O blood type is not a universal receiver. Those with blood type O can only receive transfusions from like blood types. Antigens on the red blood cells have antibodies that fight against other blood types from entering the cell. Which is why an individual’s blood type is based upon the antigens he or she has. This would mean persons with neither A nor B antigens on their red blood cells, has both Anti-A and Anti- B antibodies, which means they have type O blood.
t all began in 1818 according to the Blood Centers of the Pacific the first recorded successful human blood transfusion was accomplished during this era. However due to the lack of knowledge and research, it was followed by many blood transfusion failures. But 80 years later, scientists discovered that our red blood cells are different from one another, which was the cause of many incompatibilities blood transfusions in the 1800's. Due to this four blood types were identified - A, B, AB and O. This discovery revolutionized hematology and led the way for successful blood transfusions.
Blood is a circulating tissue consisting of three types of cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. These cells are suspended in a liquid known as plasma. Plasma is similar to salt water in composition. It carries dissolved proteins, such as antibodies, hormones, and clotting factors, and nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, salts, and minerals.
Bloodletting is a practice that is believed to have originated in Egypt around 1000 BCE, over 3000 years ago. It involved opening the veins of patients with a blade or leeches to help treat their malady. It was believed to assist the human body in fighting off whatever was ailing it, stemming from the belief that bodily fluids, or humors, had to stay in balance to maintain health. After spreading to Greece, this technique was validated by several leading physicians, including Hippocrates. The “Father of Modern Medicine” likened the practice of bloodletting to menstruation, believing that a woman’s period helped to rid her body of “bad humors”. Following the trend’s spread to the Roman Empire, the physician Galen became the leading researcher on the practice of bloodletting. He created a guide of how to bloodlet, enabling the common citizens to recreate the procedures on themselves and others, rather than going to find a more qualified person.
The traditional process for transfusions has been widely acknowledged as a successful part of the medicinal process, but most people are unaware of the shortcomings of blood transfusions. For example, donated blood is only useful for a maximum of forty-two days of shelf-life, even with the use of nutritional additives. (Lowe 1) Although the demand for blood can be high at times, it is unpredictable how much will be needed or of what blood type. This means that a good amount of blood will inevitably have to be discarded without being used. An ideal blood substitute would have a long shelf life, so that it could be used without waste. The most current artificial bloods have a shelf life of about a year, about eight times traditional blood (Sakar). Another downfall of traditional transfusions is the struggle for compatibility and donor safety. Each donor and recipient match must be tested for blood type and by cross matching blood samples. Not enough people donate blood in the first place, and each person must be tested to make sure that they are disease free, or have not done anything risking their blood’s health in the past. Artificial blood would be a perfect match with all blood types and bodies, eliminating the need for the hassle of having to use donors altogether. (Nielson) An alternative to traditional blood would allow certain groups of people with religious restrictions, such as
Blood typing is a vital part of saving lives. People who have lost blood in any way will most likely need a blood transfusion. If the wrong type of blood is administered into their system, that person’s body will reject the new blood and the person will die. However, by knowing what antigens and antibodies are in a certain type of blood, the transfusion can be matched to the patient’s blood, which will lead to a safe, effective transfusion.Therefore, knowing what antigens and antibodies are in a person’s blood and what their blood type is can be a vital part of saving their life one day. For this reason, it is vital to know how antibodies affect blood typing.
there are four major blood types a ,b, ab, or O. The antigens on the surface of a blood cell determines what kind of blood type you have. Antigens are proteins on the surface of blood cells that can cause a response from the immune system. We need to know these blood types so that if we ever needed a blood transfusion, we know what blood type we would need. It matters what blood type you receive when you have a transfusion because if you receive a different blood type that yours it could possibly kill you. All you need is to receive 50 miles or more of the wrong blood type and you could die. , but there is an exception for some blood types that can be universal. For example, blood type O, can be given to anyone because blood type O has no
Blood is incredibly important for life, and hemoglobin found in red blood cells (RBCs) is a critical ingredient. It transports oxygen from the lungs to tissues in the body. By 1998 the “intravenous transfusion of donated RBCs” was most common. About 14 million units of RBCs were donated that year which was meant for blood transfusion. Transfusion of RBCs is lifesaving but there are several limitations such as:
Observations should be undertaken and documented for every unit transfused. Good record keeping is an integral part of nursing practice and is essential to the provision of safe and effective care. The nurse should ensure that the patient is in a setting where they can be directly observed and where staff are trained in the administration of blood components and the management of transfused patients, including emergency treatment of anaphylaxis, she/he should advise and encourage the patient to notify her/him immediately if they begin to feel anxious, or if they feel any adverse reactions such as shivering, flushing, pain or shortness of breath, (Hebert, Wells, Blajchman, Marshall, Martin& Pagliarello, 2012
A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood is given to you through an intravenous (IV) line in one of your blood vessels. ("What Is a Blood Transfusion? - NHLBI, NIH." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2016.) On March 15, 1937,
Organ transplants have a long history full of minor successes and great failures, yet all of the past better paved the way for fortune feats to be conquered. The first blood transfusion that occurred between humans was executed by Dr. James Blundell in 1818, which led to later advances (Foran, 2014, pp. 100). Later, an ABO blood typing system was created by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, and was important first step toward success in the realm of organ transplants (Foran, 2014, pp. 100). There are different types of blood, which is significant due to the fact that each blood type has specific antigens that will attack other blood cells that are not alike. For instance, a person with A blood has antigens that
A transfusion reaction is the body’s systemic response to the administration of blood. Causes for transfusion reactions can include red cell incompatibility, allergic response due to leukocytes, platelets, plasma protein components of transfused blood, or the anticoagulant (potassium or citrate preservatives) used to store the blood, just to name a few. Symptoms, prevention, and treatment will be discussed for the following transfusion reactions: Transfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO), Transfusion-Related Acute Long Injury (TRALI), Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions, Anaphylaxis and Allergic Transfusion Reactions, and Febrile Transfusion Reactions.