Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )

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Summary: Robert Adams, a 50-year-old textile worker, presents to the doctor’s office with dyspnea upon exertion, and an occasional cough; rest as well as bronchodilators help to alleviate his shortness of breath and patient is a current smoker with a 60-pack-year history. Chest radiography revealed hyperinflated lungs and a flattening of the diaphragm, consistent with COPD.

Question: What are the treatment options available to patients with COPD, and how are individualized assessments used to determine the most effective therapy?


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a respiratory illness that progressively worsens over time. As seen in Mr. Adam’s case, symptoms include dyspnea, wheezing, and an occasional productive cough,.1 Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis are the two main conditions of COPD, and can occur simultaneously in patients.1 Moreover, cigarette smoking or long-term exposure to environmental pollutants and chemical fumes can increase the likelihood of developing COPD. In emphysema, the alveoli are large and irregularly shaped due to a decrease in elastic fibers, which leads to decreased gas exchange.1,2 In chronic bronchitis, the bronchi are constantly inflamed and thick mucus make it difficult to breathe.

Diagnosing COPD:

Mr. Adam’s pulmonary function test (PFT) revealed a pattern of increased air-trapping and residual volume as well as a decrease in expiratory volume and diffusion capacity. Based on the Global Initiative for Chronic

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