The Harappan Civilization is arguably one of the most successful and cultivated human development known to this date. Known as the Chalcolithic period because of copper and stone use, this civilization started in around 2600 B.C - 1900 B.C and is the oldest civilization in the world. Although many refer to it as the “Indus Valley” Civilization, it is not technically accurate because this culture was spanning way further than the Indus, so it is more reasonable to call it Harappan. The development of this society contains many different aspects, such as geography and buildings, crafts and trade, religion and ritual impurity, etc. From what we know so far, the works of this civilization is truly remarkable.
Starting with the geographical and agricultural aspect, it is found that this whole civilization spanned across major Indian Cities and parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Even though it covers a vast majority of land, the heart of the civilization was located in Harappa and Mohenjodaro because of great soil and the flooding of the river. We discovered that the town was split in two- the Citadel and the lower town. The Citadel was on a hill containing huge living structures, and a water area known as the “Great Bath” that is speculated to be a ritual area. The lower town consisted of a grid-like system, having all of the house perfectly aligned. The larger homes are speculated to be the houses of the more rich people and smaller homes for the less rich. One huge detail that