HSC Research Paper
From brain cells to skin cells, our body is made up of 200 different types of specialized cells. One of the most versatile types of cell is a stem cell. Stem cells are cells that have not been specialized yet; in other words, they do not have a specific job. For example, nerve cells work to send signals throughout your body, while stem cells do not have any specific functions. But they do possess the ability to develop into all of the other different types of specialized cells in our body. With regenerative abilities, stem cells are capable of renewing themselves through cell division and when the stem cell divides to create another cell, the new cell has the potential to either stay a stem cell or differentiate into a…show more content… For over 40 years, they have been used to successfully treat the cancers of blood, including lymphoma and leukemia. HSCs have showed a widespread of potential clinical uses and today, researchers continue to advance their knowledge of stem cells and dig deeper with hopes of widening the clinical uses of HSCs.
The first evidence of HSCs came from victims of the nuclear bombing in 1945. Research indicated that the victims, who died over a prolonged period, had compromised hematopoietic systems; in other words, their bodies were unable to regenerate either white blood cells to protect against infections or platelets to clot their blood. To further their understanding, an experiment was conducted on mice, in which they were exposed to radiation, identical to the citizens of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The mice, which were given the minimal lethal dose, died of hematopoietic failure during the two weeks following after the radiation exposure, similar to the citizens. Scientists later discovered that they could rescue the mice from hematopoietic failure by injecting cells from blood-forming organs of healthy mice. This discovery uncovered the importance of the hematopoietic system and its functions, such as the bone marrow’s role in the regeneration of blood and immune cells.
Early research of HSCs primarily focused on characterizing HSCs from other cells. Identifying and differentiating HSCs from other cells proved to be easier said than done,