The topic that will be focused on in this paper is “Do professional athletes, in today’s society, deal with racial inequalities and oppression?”. Specifically, three peer articles were reviewed while assessing this question and helped to determine the detrimental affects that these racial discriminations can have on athletes and, individuals in general. Articles reviewed include examples of direct discrimination of athletes through physical altercations as well as society’s internal beliefs. These internal beliefs steam from an interpretation of the American flag, as well as the flag’s original roots and values. Through these qualities, people are turning out to be progressively more unknowingly blinded by their activities, not understanding the damaging impact it has on others. This Literature Review specifically focuses on athletes but should be noted that this issue can be generalized to the entire population, as well as be seen in other forms of discrimination.
There are racial inequalities within sports throughout America. If more people were educated on issues, such as diversity, oppression (though racism and sexism), and cultural differences, it would expand America’s way of thinking, making it easier to grow as a society and as a nation. My research question is “Do professional athletes, in today’s society, deal with racial inequalities and oppression?”.
It’s difficult to be a black male athlete in America because of certain inequalities
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In recent history it has been evident that some of the most popularize sports in America have been dominated and overran by African American and other minority athletes. In turn when the coaching and management positions in sports are analyzed and broken down, the number of minority coaches and managers in sport are almost non-existent and have been since those sports organization became established.
Like female athletes, African Americans have had a difficult time getting equal treatment and representation for their successes by the media. African Americans were thought to have a feeling of hate towards others, as displayed in the classic feature, Remember the Titans, “Look at them, they hate us, they’ll always hate us.” In today’s sports arena, African American athletes are represented in their sports’ categories in a much larger group than in the past. However, they are still struggling to have the same equalization as their teammates in the media’s representation of their talents and skills. A typical stereotype of the African American by the media is their depiction of them having more brawn than brain. For example, Luke Walton of the Los Angeles Lakers, for example, is a white male whom commentators often commend for his high basketball IQ when he makes plays, but often fault for his insufficient physical ability when he doesn’t. African American teammates of Walton’s, in contrast, find their “skills” praised when they execute well and their “mental errors” blamed for failures to execute. Sports-related socialization of this discriminatory type can perpetuate stereotypes generation after generation.
In the collegiate world of sports, basketball has become an increasingly recognized sport among African Americans, predominantly males. The hope of any young basketball player is that one day a scout will come and recruit them into stardom The question that presents itself as a problem to the lucky few who are chosen to go professional, is whether or not an education is more important than a million dollar shoe deal, “The NCAA's (1998) annual six-year study reported that only 33% of Black male basketball players graduated, (Chronicle of Higher Education, 1999). Individually, basketball reported the lowest graduation rate in all divisions,” (Robinson, 2004:1). Basketball players have become so idolized in the eyes of young
The topic of race in sport, particularly African Americans in sport, has long been a controversial yet, widely discussed matter. Human and social issues are never easy subjects to discuss or debate, and racial differences tend to provoke very strong reactions. To begin, we will explore those whom claim that black athletes excel in sports as a result of their biological make up. Of all players in the NBA, more than 75% of them are black; of all players in the WNBA, more than 70% of them are black; of all players in the NFL, more than 65% of them are black (Hoenig, 2014). Evidently, black athletes make up a vast majority of these sports in the United States. Athletes must be of elite caliber to have the ability to play at this level, so this
Ever since September of last year, the NFL National Anthem Protest has been one of the most controversial topics across social-media, alongside with other protests against police brutality. Many have criticized for such an action for being disrespectful to the National Anthem and Flag. Those, who have supported it, claim to protest against the nationwide police brutalities against the Black people. Looking back to the history of the United States, such sports protests are not a unique incident. During 1968 Olympic game, which are hold in Mexico City, African American Athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their black-gloved fists to speak for black civil rights. Yet, back then both the U.S. government and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) did not show support for such an action, though today the IOC claimed that the black American athletes has made names for themselves for doing such protests.
One interesting view by Douglas Hartmann in his journal article entitled “Rethinking The Relationships Between Sports And Race In American Culture: Golden Ghettos And Contested Terrain” said that racial issues in sport is; borrowing Stuart Hall (1981) words- “a contested racial terrain” (qtd. in Hartmann 241). The “contested racial terrain” is defined as “a social site where racial images, ideologies, and inequalities are constructed, transformed, and constantly struggled over” (Hartmann 230). In other words, sports have become a medium where the definition and limitation of racism created. This also means that the definition of racial issues will constantly change over time. Hartmann view is interesting seeing that he believes that the context of racism in sports are actually broader than we actually think. He did not agree with the simple view of because racial discrimination happens in our society, thus racial discrimination also happens in sports (Hartmann 242). He further delves into two interesting problems in stereotyping and biasing.
Brian's Song is a movie that starred James Caan, as Brian Piccolo, and Billy D. Williams, as Gale Sayers. The movie was primarily about how the two players interacted each other as running backs for the Chicago Bears and how their friendship matured through the difficulties of Brian's cancer diagnosis and eventual death. The movie explores many themes such as friendship, courage and compassion, but it leaves one particular subject somewhat alone. Gale Sayers is black and Brian Piccolo was white and they were roommates on team trips at a time when relationships between these two races could be very volatile. The movie had very little to say about how black and white professional players interacted, but there is some evidence in the movie of the tension that existed and the segregation that still existed. This paper explores this theme of race relations in sports seen through Brian's Song and as it is today.
Racism is prevalent in today’s society and is exposed in the sports industry as well. Various athletes in different sports field experience racism and face it everyday. Social media is a big platform for people to criticize athletes for their failures and success. On the other hand more times than not, racism can be found within the head of organizations of major sports, most noticeably football. The NFL has condoned an abundance of racist actions towards players of Hispanic and African American descent; therefore, the NFL should stop these problems by supporting athletes that take a stand, holding the NFL owners accountable for their actions, and finally, not stereotyping young black athletes into a position based off of racial factors.
The history of sports goes back since ancient times. It has been a useful way for people to explore nature and their environment. Sports include different activities and games such as football, soccer, basketball, and etc. to express their skills and talents. Also, sports are a way to relax and have fun; but are sports all our African Americans rely on? The dream to become future sports stars. The reason why Gates begins his essay with an anecdote is to show and compare how many african-american athletes were at work today and how little the chances of African-Americans becoming athletes are compared to being a lawyer, dentist, or even a doctor. African-Americans assume that they are born athletes and it’s because the school system doesn’t
Without a doubt, we look at athletes today and from the past as if they are larger than life individuals. They show their personality through talent no matter what they play; some are better than others, for example some can kick or throw. However, at the end of the day they all have a different voice and a different story. People expect them to turn a blind eye to everyday events because of their status. People think of athletes as celebrities, they say they do not go through the same struggles as everyday people. That statement is far from the truth when it pertains to the issue of racism. Racism has been an unresolved problem for years whether it is in sports or athletes speaking for what they believe. Racism has had a big impact on sports such as Germany hosting the olympics and cheating, N.B.A. owners thinking they rule over their players, and the hidden discrimination that happens in locker rooms. Many times athletes have stood up for what they believed just to be shot down. Nowhere in their contracts does it state that because they are professionals that they must compromise their freedom of speech. Whether it be refusing to meet with the president, speaking out on racial injustices, or not standing for the national anthem, athletes have a strong voice in the fight against discrimination and other traumatic events. The fight for equality in sports and throughout America is a process that includes multiple organizations, the reaction of authority figures, and
Sports played and continue to play a pivotal role in American history and culture. Baseball provided an escape from the stress and frustration of WWII, a beacon of light during hard times and later helped influence integration. Athletes became symbols of what being a true American meant and many sports enhanced American culture. One of the most prolific changes sports brought to our society was the beginning of racial equality on the field. It encouraged and aided the fledgling equal rights movement that evolved in the 1960s. African American athletes were considered second-class citizen until sports provided the first taste of equality. Teams life the Indians, Dodgers and Giants led the way for all teams to accept black players on
I recently saw the film, 42, and I found many connections with our Sociology of Sport class. First and foremost, the movie was about the baseball legend, Jackie Robinson. Jack broke the baseball color barrier and was the first African American player allowed in Major League Baseball. He played for the Brooklyn Dodgers beginning in 1947. Jack was a strong, talented player, but he also had a mind of his own. He played with an attitude that would be taunting to other players. When he made it to the Montreal Royals in 1946, he had to quickly get rid of this taunting, smart attitude. He was the only black player in a time of hatred and prejudice in the United States. Although he
I would like to discuss the issue of race and ethnicity in sports. We will also explore the bigger questions. How much does race and ethnicity matter in the sports world? Are certain races dominant in certain sports? Is there a difference in how we treat players based on race and ethnicity? Does it matter? I would like to answer some of these questions and gain a better understanding of how much of a part they play.
After extensive study on different types of worldview, I realized that transformative worldview would be the best view to bring to the study. ( ) One of the ideas provided in our text book stated that research “needs to be intertwined with politics and a political change agenda to confront social oppression at whatever level it occurs.” (9)This statement is a direct viewpoint that could be brought from the research on the topic. Politics have changed college athletics and have a very big influence on what happens in each sport. One of the implications that became a realization is empowerment because college athletes could
Racism is an evolving problem that we have face in our society for generations. This issue is evolving because it opens itself to all components of life. Sport is no stranger to involvement with racism, in fact it has been a platform which sparks change or intensifies the state of racism in society. Racism refers to the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races (Oxford Dictionary). Historically racism is an ideology systematically developed as the Europeans made their journey to the New World to explore and colonized the globe and the differences in it. This Great expedition was the excuse used to justify colonialism, slavery and genocide. This racial ideology has manifested itself in to the sports world in creating the modern-day apartheid which resides in the form of the black athlete in the major conferences of the NCAA. In this paper, I will be breaking down: the systemic institution of the NCAA, the generational racism the black athlete faces and the intuitional racism faced on campus to prove the existence of modern day apartheid.