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Economics Of The Coming Spaceship Earth Essay

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Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth
Boulding (1966) proposes that the Earth is transitioning from an open to a closed economy where unlimited exploitation of natural sources and sinks will eventually become limited. Boulding (1966) introduces the concept of the cowboy economy, which is open, resource exploitation and pollution disposal are limitless and emphasis is on consumption and production. The spaceship economy is closed, Earth has limited reservoirs for exploitation and pollution disposal, and emphasis is on stock maintenance.
Boulding (1966) discusses behaviours of matter, energy and information to illustrate moving from a cowboy to spaceship economy. In an open system production and consumption are linear, but as it moves
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A safe operating space for humanity &
Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet
Rockström et al. (2009) propose a planetary boundary (PB) framework based on scientific data of biophysical processes, to determine the safe operating space required to maintain stable conditions on earth for continued human development. The boundaries were based on a control variable and a safe zone, zone of uncertainty and critical zone were defined. Nine biophysical processes were evaluated: climate change, rate of biodiversity, biogeochemical flows, ozone depletion, ocean acidification, freshwater use, land use, chemical pollution and atmospheric aerosols.
PBs for climate change, ozone layer and ocean acidification remained the same in both the Rockström et al. (2009) and Steffen et al. (2015) papers. Controls used for climate change were atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and change in radiative forcing relative to pre-industrial levels. The PB for CO2 is set at 350ppm; the zone of uncertainty extended to 450ppm by Steffen et al. (2015). The PB zone of uncertainty for radiative forcing is set at 1- 1.5Wm–2. Ozone depletion is measured using O3 concentration and the PB is set at 275DU. Ocean acidification is based on mean global aragonite saturation in surface seawater and set at ≥80% pre industrial aragonite saturation. Stefan et al. (2015) revises biodiversity loss, biogeochemical flows, land use
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