Electricity Generation and Storage in Spacecrafts
Electricity generation and storage plays a vital part of space missions. Without which space exploration would not be possible. Beginning in the 1950’s, ‘Sputnik 1’ used batteries as its only power supply, since then the methods of electricity generation to power spacecrafts have developed and improved immensely, branching out to solar and nuclear systems.
Solar power, or photovoltaics use light as a source of electricity. The photoelectric effect, discovered by Edmund Bequerel in 1839, shows that some materials have the ability to release electric current when subjected to light. Solar cells consist of semi conductors that are specially treated to create
Click here to unlock this and over one million essays
Get AccessSolar panels utilize photovoltaic power in large quantities, a method that became possible following the discovery of the silicon cell in 1954. A photovoltaic power system was developed for El Paso in 1980. Photovoltaics are
In 1954 Bell Laboratories invented the first photovoltaic (or solar) cell, made from the semi-conductor silicon, and other elements. It was the first way to convert sunlight directly into electricity. When the space program was launched in the 60's, it
Solar energy is a renewable energy source meaning that the energy is generated by the sun. The way that solar produces energy is by the sun's rays that reach earth and converts into heat and electricity. Its transported by photovoltaic ( pv devices ) and solar thermal electric power plants. Examples of this energy source is : solar powered window blinds, bulbs, refrigerators, radios, calculators,
The greatest energy that can be produced by the sun is electricity. Photovoltaics, or solar cells, capture the sun and convert it into electricity. Solar cells were discovered by the Europeans back in the 1870’s when they used selenium to develop the telegraph. They found that when light hits selenium it would produce and electrical current. Soon enough there were many scientists and engineers working on photovoltaic systems. Silicon and Selenium proved to be the two best elements to conduct electricity when light hits them. Photovoltaic systems (PV cell) work by converting the suns light into electricity. A semi conducting material absorbs the sunlight, that energy knocks electrons loose from their atoms, this allows the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity. The further development of solar cells can be attributed to the satellite industry. Solar cells were expensive and there was no use for them until satellites came. Because it is impractical to tether satellites it became important to develop solar energy at any cost that would power these satellites. This created a sustainable market for solar power, the first of its kind.
There are many different types of renewable sources such as solar panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric power. Solar panels work by using sunlight and enhancing it into electricity which is then distributed. They work when the sunlight hits the anti-reflective coating of a solar panel which creates a charge with the delocalised electrons in specially treated semiconductor material. These were first created in 1954 by Bell Laboratories . Although it was very expensive at the time of discovery, over the years the price of manufacturing and installing the solar panels have decreased while the efficiency of the panels has also decreased meaning more energy can be produced at a faster rate. Another type of renewable energy which is very popular is wind energy produced by turbines. This produce energy by using the
“The photovoltaic effect is the basic physical process through which a photovoltaic cell converts sunlight into electricity.”(Seale E, 2003) Sunlight is composed of photons, the photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to different wavelengths of light. When the light strikes the photovoltaic cell, it will be reflected, absorbed or pass through the two side photovoltaic cell. One side has a positive electric charge while the other side has a negative charge. Light striking crystals such as silicon or germanium, in which electrons are usually not free to move from atom to atom within the crystal,
Solar power is the most abundant most renewable resource that we have and it is free. The process starts when the sun shines on Solar PV panels that have been installed on your roof. Photovoltaic refers to the scientific process by which solar energy is converted into electricity. There are a number of silicon cells within each PV panel. These react with photons, or units of light, from the sun to produce direct current or electricity. DC electricity then travels to an inverter, which converts this energy to electricity known as alternating current or AC that can be used in your home or office. AC electricity then travels to the distribution network in your home powering your domestic or office appliances. When your solar panels produce more electricity than your home or office is using, the extra electricity gets fed back into the national grid. Yet, there are many processes the PV cell actually goes through to produce power of electricity. The top and bottom layer of the PV cells are protective glass layers with conducting coding’s. Electricity in the form of electrons flows in and out of these conducting coding’s while electrical production process happens in the middle layer of the PV cell. At the molecular level, a photon strikes a dye molecule absorbed on the surface of the TiO2 causing an excited state, which releases an electron into the TiO2 that exists through the conductive layer. The
Solar energy begins with the sun. Solar panels, also known as photovoltaics, are used to convert light from the sun, which is composed of particles of energy called "photons", into electricity that can be used to power electrical loads. Light from the sun is a renewable energy resource that provides clean energy, produced by solar panels.
Well, according to eere.enegry.gov, the U.S. Department of Energy, solar powered technology dates back to the 7th century B.C. What object did these early people have to allow them to use natural energy? They used a magnifying glass. It was used to concentrate the sun’s rays to make a fire, or burn ants. Solar panels, the ones we more commonly see today, were created by scientists David Carlson and Christopher Wronski back in 1976.
There have been solar panels for a long time, but who invented them? In 1839, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel discovered the “photovoltaic effect” which explains how electricity can be generated from sunlight. Photovoltaic means when sunlight is converted it turns into a flow of electrons (electricity). He claimed that “shining light on an electrode immersed in a conductive solution would create an electric current.” Over 100 years later, in 1941, Russell Ohl invented the solar cell, shortly after the invention of the transistor. Light (photons) striking certain compounds, such as metals, causes the surface of the material to emit electrons. A light that strikes other compounds causes the material to accept electrons. It is the combination of these
It was previously stated that “solar electric propulsion provides such high fuel economy that it reduces the amount of propellant required onboard vehicles for deep-space missions by as much as 90 percent”18. With this statement, alternate ions and configurations have been extensively researched and compared to find the best alternative solution.
More recently, in 1980, an American physicist Professor John Goodenough invented the lithium battery. As lithium is one of the lightest elements on the period table and being its electrochemical potential is extremely high, the combination produces some of the highest possible voltages in the most compact and lightest volumes (Alarco 2015). There is an unfortunate decent balance between advantages and disadvantage for lithium batteries. An advantage is that its low maintenance, therefore the batteries don’t exhibit a phenomenon known as the “Memory Effect”, of which in short is now used as a general term for anything that makes a battery not deliver at its full capacity. A disadvantage of lithium batteries is the cost. Money is
This report aims at analysing the feasibility of the Space-based Solar Power stations (SBSP) and scheme a theoretically executable solution. The report begins with an introduction to the concept of space solar power (SSP) and reviews prior researches of proposed solar power satellite (SPS) systems. The functional components of the SBSP are described, and different methods and promising hypotheses from previous and current developments are demonstrated. The fundamentals of wireless transmission methodologies are reviewed, including a discussion of the best way to transmit power without cables. The techniques of collecting solar power and the receiving power are outlined, including the performance analysis of each component selected by these technologies. By studying the prior theories and progresses, a feasible SBSP station plan will be projected.