Fleming and His Amazing Discovery of Penicillin
Professor: James Cheetham
Student: Hyun Hong
October 6th, 2015
Biotechnology has a long history of helping human beings have a better quality of life. Over the decades, numerous scientists have made substantial contributions to biotechnology. Among these scientists, I think Alexander Fleming made the greatest contributions. In this paper, I will explain how Alexander Fleming made significant contribution to biotechnology and how his contributions have had a tremendous impact on our modern society. To explain these, this paper will specifically focus on describing three main points. These three points are: first, Fleming discovered the world’s first antibiotic called penicillin and the use of this drug has saved millions of people’s lives; second, penicillin has led to the discovery and development of many other antibiotics which are used today to effectively fight a large number of bacterial diseases; and third, the widespread use of penicillin and other antibiotics have increased the average human life expectancy significantly. Alexander Fleming has made contributions to advancement of biotechnology in several different ways. One major way was through his discovery of penicillin. Throughout life, we as humans will deal with many different types of bacterial infections. For instance, we may suffer from typhoid, cholera, tetanus caused by Pathogenic (Dougan, 1994). Some of us may
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
In this reading there was many very interesting facts about penicillin. Penicillin was a breakthrough in the medical field in the 20th century. The scientist Alexander Fleming had accidentally spilled a vile of bacteria on to a plate of bacteria to his benefit he found that is had stopped the growth of bacteria. This accidental discover has benefited everyone in the world because we have to get these shots if we are infected, plus it saved many life’s in world war II. However, Penicillin is considered an antibiotic chemical that is created by living organism to stop the growth of bacteria and prevent an illness if people were to come into contact with this problem. Since the discovery and massive stock piling of this cure it has become less
In 1928 Dr. Alexander Fleming began to sort through a pile of petri dishes containing colonies of bacteria that causes boils, sore throats, and abscesses. As he sorted through the dishes he noticed something unusual on one dish. It was dotted with colonies, and one area had a blob of mold growing. The area of mold was later identified as a rare strain of Penicillium notatum, the mold had secreted something that inhibited bacterial growth. Fleming later uncovered that this mold was capable of killing a wide range of harmful bacteria such as streptococcus, meningococcus and the diphtheria bacillus, that had played humanities. Prior to the discovery of Penicillin, Sulfa drugs were used during World War II. These drugs were name as the “wonder drug”. Although they’re still used today, Sulfa drugs were used to cure bacterial infections such as UTIs and gonorrhea. The new found drug penicillin, would cure millions and replace the use of Sulfa drugs.
The disclosure by Alexander Fleming of penicillin opened up a totally new time of chemotherapy. Antibiotics are the chemotherapeutic specialists that kill or inhabit the development of microorganisms. These substance operators are utilized to treat malady by wrecking pathogenic microorganisms or restraining their development at focus sufficiently low to enough to avoid undesirable harm to the host (Dafale et al., 2016).
In September of 1928, a rushed bacteriologist Dr. Alexander Fleming let his lab at St. Mary’s Hospital, as usual, a mess on his way to a month vacation. Little did he know he had just spawned one of the most crucial inventions of all time. Upon his return to his laboratory he found mold had grown in the petri dishes he had left out. One of whom contained the rare spore Penicillium notatum that had probably wafted up into his lab through the air currents from the down-stairs mycology lab. Dr. Fleming noticed a ring around the mold, and it was 100% bacteria free! Curiosity urged him onward, as he grew a pure culture of the mold and discover that it killed a great deal of disease-causing bacteria. He would go on to name the substance penicillin.
Jesse Lane says in Not-So-Dumb Luck, When he came back, he noticed that every dish he had left out in the open was covered in mold.” She later says, “The dish that had caught Fleming’s eye contained a staphylococci culture- in other words, it was chock full of bacteria- and while Fleming had been away, the culture had also grown a tuft of yellow-green mold.” And that was the beginning revolutionary history of penicillin. Later in the paragraph the author says, “After some experimentation, he found that the ring was bacteria free, and that the mold was a rare spore called Penicillium notatum,” Where the name penicillin comes from ”which had wafted on air currents into his lab from another floor.” If he hadn’t gone on vacation and left his lab a mess then penicillin wouldn’t be with us today saving lives.Thirdly, penicillin is a widely used medicine that kills bacteria and treats
Fleming’s work was later expanded by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain and their team at Oxford University beginning in 1938, about ten years after Fleming’s first findings. They were able to transform penicillin as a curiosity in the lab and antiseptic to the life-saving antibiotic we know it as today. Howard Florey was deemed at an early age by his older sister who was a medical student at the time to be the next “Pasteur” due to his interest in pursuing medical research. Florey then achieved much as a student at the University of Adelaide, which at that time didn’t specialize in researchers, but in preparing general practitioners. Howard then went on to receive the Rhodes Scholarship to study in England at Oxford University. He used this opportunity as a springboard to going on to study in America and return back to England to Oxford University achieve much greatness. In 1938, he became the director of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology. After a few years of taking on a variety of experiments and gathering a team of trusted professionals, he spearheaded work on the self-proclaimed “Penicillin Project” after coming across and sifting
Before 1928, infections such as pneumonia and gonorrhea were untreatable, and many died of blood poisoning due to lesions that are considered minor in modern times. There were no known antibiotics that could kill the bacteria that caused such infections, so people would die of minor illnesses, such as strep throat. However, Alexander Fleming noticed something odd in one of the petri dishes at St. Mary’s Hospital in London, and this seemingly insignificant observation would revolutionize the field of medicine. He was cultivating strains of the Staphylococcus bacteria, and he found that there were not any bacteria colonies growing near a patch of mold in the dish. After looking more into this finding, Alexander Fleming learned that the mold was actually a strain of Penicillium notatum, and it had the capacity to kill malign bacteria like streptococcus, meningococcus
Antibiotics were introduced to people in 1929, which could restrain the normal growth of the other bacteria called antimicrobial activity, was found by British scientist Alexander Fleming by coincidence. Then scientists used antibiotics, to cure injured soldiers and got great success during the World War. With the efforts of many scientists in the past half of the century, thousand kinds of antibiotics are found, which could be natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic, and many of them are used in medical field successfully.
In 1928, after the careless mistake of forgetting to clean his dishes, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. The scientific community still celebrates his discovery since it was a major breakthrough in science, especially in the antibiotics and fermentation field. Although his discovery changed various scientific fields and it opened the doors for research in areas not studied or considered relevant before, the actual usefulness of penicillin was truly reached until the large scale production of penicillin was achieved. Before its manufacturing penicillin was considered for researching purposes, but after its manufacturing during World War II, it truly became helpful for humanity because it could finally start performing within its antibiotic spectrum.
“In 1938, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain began to study penicillin” (Connors 126). This is important because it means extensive research was being done to figure out a way for penicillin to be applied on humans. “Part of the reason for their increased effort in discovering how penicillin could be used on humans was that a drug was needed to reduce bacterial infections in soldiers’ wounds” (Connors 126). This means there was a need for the development of penicillin, this fact probably motivated the scientists. In the end, without the development of penicillin, it could not have become such a widely used
This video provided a stark look at a serious problem that faces us on the disease front, and it also lent a glimpse into a real possibility that looms over mankind: being thrust back to the time when we were powerless to stop bacterial infections. Scientific research may be our best hope to find new antibiotics capable of warding off pathogenic bacteria for a number of decades, until once again, they become resistant. Or perhaps, as in the case presented in the video of Fleming’s initial discovery of antibiotics (Rx for Survival, 2005), chance will favor us and someone will stumble upon a new
One researcher he hired soon after his arrival was Ernst Chain(Pbs 2). Ernst Chain became interested in antibacterial chemicals. He started looking back at old articles written by Fleming concerning Penicillin . The Oxford team, as Florey's researchers have become known(Pbs 2), began experimenting with the penicillin mold. Penicillin mold naturally produces the antibiotic Penicillin. Scientists learned to grow Penicillin mold in deep fermentation tanks by adding a kind of sugar and other important ingredients. After enough grew scientists separated the penicillin product from the mold. Finally it was purified and bottled and eventually used as an antibiotic. They took it one step further than Fleming did, they did not just try it on a petri dish, but injected it in live mice. With controlled experimentation, they found it cured mice with bacterial infections. They went on to try it on a few human subjects and saw amazing
We had so many illnesses before penicillin like for example the spread of diseases from rats and also from bacterias that were everywhere we touched, ate and drank. Many people lost their lives because of all of this tragedies that is why the population of cities, villages, and countries were so small because many of the people were dying of illness and the mistread of the doctors by not having a cur at the time. People had it hard before the discovery of the best medication there is was hardly any cure for anything. During World War 1 Fleming and his crew moved with the soldiers and served them when they got injured and try to save their lives because when they were at war there was a lot more bacteria because there were so many deaths of other soldiers and because there were too many chemicals in the air the reason being was the amo and the types of bomb that were used at the time. After Fleming noticed that there were so many lives that were lost he thought to himself why wasn’t anything to save lives invented so he went to the laboratory and had so many formulas in mind to help fight bacteria but none of them worked because it did not kill it. When Fleming was cleaning his laboratory he had different types of bacterias together but he had it in a cube to analyze it later with other formulas, but when he was cleaning he spilled some chemicals into the cube he had and did not know what happened but he analyzed the bacteria and what the chemical did to it, he noticed that it killed the bacteria that was impossible to kill and he had to do some more research to find out how the bacteria was dead and how to test it again. After several times he researched the bacteria with penicillin he revealed his work in 1929. Since then Fleming changed the world of medicine and saved many lives, but it took a while for his invention to be all over the world and
As Dr. Andrew Fleming once said, “one sometimes finds what one is not looking for.” After returning from summer vacation in 1928, He would go on discover one of the world’s greatest accidents in his lab at St. Mary’s Hospital, London. Upon his arrival, he found his work bench scattered with various petri dishes that were previously contaminated with Staphylococcus Aureus but then replaced by a mold known as Penicillium Notatum that inhibited the growth of certain harmful bacterias. This mold would revolutionize modern medicine, as the world’s first true antibiotic. At the time of its discovery there was no cure for ailments such as pneumonia, gonorrhea, rheumatic fever or even blood poisoning. However this great magnitude of his discovery