The Commercial Revolution
“The Moneylender and His Wife,” Quentin Metsys (1514)
AP European History
J.F. Walters (2010)
Commercial Revolution: Essential Questions
1. How did developments in the late Middle Ages impact the Commercial Revolution?
2. What contribution did Luca Pacioli make to the Commercial Revolution?
3. What was the nature of banking in the Commercial Revolution?
4. What was a joint-stock company?
5. What was the Domestic System” in England?
6. What was the Price Revolution and what were its results?
7. What were the principles of mercantilism and what impact did it have on economics and politics?
8. In what ways did the Commercial Revolution sow the seeds of capitalism?
9. What was “Tulip Mania” …show more content…
As moneylenders, they became immensely wealthy, controlling Spanish customs and extending their power throughout Spain’s overseas empire. Their inﬂuence stretched from Rome to Budapest, from Lisbon to Danzig, from Moscow to Chile. In their banking role, they loaned millions of ducats to kings, cardinals and the Holy Roman emperor, ﬁnancing wars, propping up popes, and underwriting new adventures –– putting up the money, for example, that King Carlos of Spain gave Magellan in commissioning his voyage around the world. In the early sixteenth century the family patriarch was Jakob Fugger II, who ﬁrst emerged as a powerful ﬁgure in 1505, when he secretly bought the crown jewels of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy. Jakob ﬁrst became count in Kirchberg and Weisserhorn; then, in 1514 the emperor Maximilian I
–– der gross Max –– acknowledged the Fuggers’ role as his chief ﬁnancial supporter for thirty years by making him a hereditary knight of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1516, by negotiating complex loans, Jakob made Henry VIII of England a Fugger ally. It was a tribute to the family’s inﬂuence, and to the growth of trade everywhere, that a year later the Church’s Fifth Lateran Council lifted its age-old prohibition of usury.
Source: A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance, William Manchester (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1992), pp. 48-50.
AP European History • The Commercial
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
A World Lit Only By Fire by William Manchester is not only informative of the conflicts that occurred in Europe, but it is humorous and includes perspectives and anecdotes that are not viewed as impartial. It is structured into three separate sections: The Medieval Mind, The Shattering and One Man Alone.
I was unaware of how grueling and unpredictable the process was. I did not realize that in order for New England colonists to make one a trade with a country that is owned by the British as well they would have to sell their goods to the merchants, the merchants had to try their hand overseas to see if they make safely into a new port with their goods, then they have to see if they can sell their goods at a lower price than they bought it for, and so many more steps. Learning about all the steps that people in the 17th century had to take to trade only a few goods makes me so grateful for how efficient getting products from other countries is now, and I believe the early trading system paved the way for our trading now which is very cool to me. In terms of the article, I read there were a lot of
Throughout the central Middle Ages, Europe was characterized by the power struggle between the secular and the ecclesiastic. The question of rule by God or by man was one which arose with unwavering frequency among scholars, clergy, and nobility alike. The line which separated church and state was blurry at best, leading to the development of the Investiture Conflict in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and the attempts to undermine the heir to the throne in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Four men stand out among dozens in this effort to define the powers of the lay versus that of the spiritual: Emperor/kings Henry IV and John of England, and the popes who aggressively challenged their exertions of authority, Pope Gregory VII
Wolsey served as the king’s principle minster from 1515 to 1529, till his failure in securing the divorce for Henry VIII resulted in his fall from power. Though Wolsey has been criticised due to suggestions of limited usefulness he provided to Henry, Wolsey provided clear dedication to the crown. These three extracts provide convincing insights into the interpretations of the effectiveness of Wolsey as the king’s principal minister. Extract A can provide a convincing insight into the actions Wolsey took as the King’s principal minister, in relation to the responsibility he held. C.S.L Davies evaluates that Wolsey did little to change the manner of maintaining the justice and peace of the country, and was not greatly effective as the King’s
The Soul trade’s main point was to rebuild St. Peter’s cathedral. The Fuggers appointed by the Pope to manage sales of indulgences it was sold across Europe, would keep half of the earnings. Moreover, the business grew from only importing raw cotton to also importing silk, herbs, rare foods, and jewels. Further more, the Fugger’s fortune exponentially increased when the Holy Roman Emperor,
Compare how poets present ideas to do with identity in Checking out me History and The Charge of the Light Brigade The structure of Checking out me History belittles the British history by using nursery rhymes and fairy tales as examples of it, a way of the poet turning the tables on the authorities that taught his British history rather than about historical black figures. The simple language suggests that British historical figures are childish or of less importance in the speaker’s eyes, which is the opposite of what he was brought up to believe. This is heightened by the impressive descriptions of the black historical figures, using metaphors like “fire woman” and “a yellow sunrise” to make them appear of much more value that the “dish who ran away with the spoon” and “ole King Cole” who was a “merry old soul”, where the childish sing-song rhymes make them seem ridiculous rather than of real significance. In Charge of the Light Brigade, however, the British troops are made to look brave and noble
William Manchester’s A World Lit Only By Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance unveils an in- depth look at the Late Medieval Ages in Europe and touches upon the Renaissance. It is most well known as the time period that occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire- when the eastern world seemed to have plummeted into an age of regression and darkness. Manchester’s central proposition was “The power of the medieval mind had been irrevocably broken” (295). The dimensions of the medieval mind were cloaked from the outside world and suppressed by the ever-powerful dogmas of the Catholic Church, for there “was no room for doubt; the possibility of skepticism simply did not exist” (20). At the same time, a new “era” was rising in Europe, accompanied by an increasing rate in literacy, new innovations, the printing press, powerful political figures, and the appraisals of the Catholic Church. A new cultural movement began to appear, known as the Renaissance, and the darkness of the medieval mind map was forever shattered, to remain a pale illusion. Humanists, such as Sir Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus, and inventors and explorers such as Leonardo Da Vinci, Nicolas Copernicus, and Ferdinand Magellan guided the way to a new ideology of independent thinking. Following the campaign of upcoming thinkers, movements, and changes that would turn people’s blind eye, Manchester concluded his point with the tale of Magellan’s heroic
Seeing that he had conquered most of Europe it was hard to maintain control over all of the territories. Given his problem, annually he would send trusted members of his commit to go to each part of his empire to collect dues, which he needed. This proved their dependence on manors (lords) throughout the kingdom. Every year the Lords (or manors) were supposed to pay
The House of Habsburg's roots reach back to Count Guntram the Rich, the progenitor of the House. He was a count in the area of Breisgau, and related to the powerful Etichonid family. He gained a great deal of land near the Rhine, but lost much of it after being found guilty of treason by Emperor Otto the Great. The family's fortune were restored by Count Radbot von Habsburg, the grandson of Guntram, who built Habsburg Castle and married the daughter of the Duke of Lorraine.
I took United State History during my junior year. My nominee, Richard Truax was the history teacher. History in general was not an easy subject for me. Majority of history class is known a course based on harsh memorization skill than actual learning. I had difficulties in memorizing specific details in general.
China is a country with a long history. Looking back in history, there are many virtuous personages. After I read the Book of Odes and the Chronicles of Zuo, I found that both the official Zhongshan Fu and the Zichan are outstanding people, who help their duck to make a better kingdom.
A “Mercantilism” is a theory that was embraced by the British authorities. Mercantilism is a belief in profitable trading. The mercantilists thought or believed that being wealthy was power. The mercantilists think that a country's economic wealth is measured by the amount of could and silver they have. A historian says that “Mercantilism” was more favorable in the colonies and not in Great Britain. I think that “Mercantilism” was more favorable in the colonies. I have several reasons why I agree with the historians.