Throughout my research, a challenge I encountered was the fact that some of the articles I encountered seemed to included biases within them especially with the primary view of
“Meats, Dairies, and Eggs, Oh Why” (2014) is an argumentative essay written by Rebecca Dent that explains the benefits of eating a plant-based diet and advocates for the better treatment of the animals affected by the meat industry. Dent supports her assertions by discussing the negative health effects of an omnivorous diet, addressing reasons some might be hesitant to convert to a plant-based diet, describing the advantages of substituting meat for vegetables for both the consumers and the animals, and finally, by including expert opinions and statistical facts. Dent’s purpose for this essay is to highlight the benefits of vegetarianism in order to convince readers to convert to a plant-based diet. The intended audience for this argument is those who currently eat an omnivorous diet so that they would assess and change their eating habits.
2. I agree that journalism and policies must give all viewpoints the chance to be shared with the public, but I do not support the false balance of scientific legitimacy being granted to all viewpoints. It is important for the public to be informed of current scientific issues, without a doubt; however, I think the public should hear more about the viewpoint that the majority of the scientific community supports. In the process of weighing the evidence, it is true that the less legitimate viewpoints must also be considered. However, the false balance of viewpoints in journalism and policies makes it harder for the general public, especially the non-scientifically trained, to recognize the viewpoint
I agree with your post about the competence which always involves having an open mind, and being respectful when dealing with different cultures. Learning, accept and respect other cultures is an important step for having new experiences and learning about the world. Each patient requires respect and acceptance as a human being. Another important factor is the communication, which is the corner stone of nurse patient relation. The purpose of the relationship is to help the patient, to promote healing, and to support functioning. Provide Cultural Competence Training for Employees is also important factor. Training also should be included as part of new-hire training and/or annual competency review. The main reason is the cultural competence
I understand the term “cultural competence” is the ability to naturally navigate through (social) environments taking into consideration people’s different cultural views and promote the views of others – not to the detriment of others.
According to the American Evaluation Association (AEA) Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation, focusing on cultural sensitive enhance the quality of care. AEA mentioned that “Culturally significant factors encompass, but are not limited to, race/ethnicity, religion, spirituality, social class, caste, language, lineage, disability, sexual orientation, age, gender, geographic region, and socioeconomic circumstances” (American Evaluation Association (AEA), 2011); thus, concerning to difference in cultural is a significant aspect which all health care providers should put the first priorities. Therefore, focusing on cultural aspect strategy is the best fit with the essential practices for cultural competence acknowledged by the AEA.
The Scientific Studies: Last Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) explains why the media report false information when it comes to science and how some studies by researchers are actually incomplete but are being reported as if they were complete. There are so many studies in science that they seem to contradict each other to an extent. John Oliver explains studies can be either misunderstood by the media as a result of the media just reading the press releases, leaving out important information about the research such as the sample size, or reporting on studies that may have not been completed yet. All studies are completed differently and if the public is not aware of this then they believe what the media are reporting. Oliver also mentions that
Merchants of Doubt is a documentary movie that describes misinformation and confusion spread to many American citizens. The movie focuses on some of the most popular controversies and the public relation tactics used in conjunction. The documentary points out people who portray themselves as scientific authorities in media, but cause complete confusion about serious issues such as toxic chemicals, pharmaceutical and global warming. The film begins by talking about the tobacco industry’s tactic of getting rid of the government regulations put in place. In the film, they show this industry used various public relation strategies to make the public doubt that cigarettes caused cancer. This strategy basically was the center template by many other industries in various materials and foods. When scientist
Although the case study was discredited and the authors found guilty of ethical violations, it is very difficult to refute a published paper among the general public. Once the information is out there, correct or not, it is not easy to take it back. This publication has also done damage to the scientific community as a whole, with questions about funding and sponsorship being raised. Are we being given all of the facts and findings? Are studies being conducted in order to prove a hypothesis instead of challenge
For example, if it is believed that during the full moon occurs an increase in emergency room admissions, realize revenue during the full moon, but it will not pay attention to the moon when income occurs for other nights the rest of the months. A tendency to do so eventually unjustifiably strengthens their belief in the relationship between the full moon and accidents and other lunar effects. This tendency to pay more attention to data that support our beliefs that the data that counteract them is especially harmful when beliefs are nothing more than prejudice. If our beliefs are firmly established in evidence and valid experiments, the tendency to pay more attention and weight to data that conform to our beliefs not should take them, usually
If I was a history teacher and told you women were more dominant than men, would you believe me ? With news media false repressing scientific studies, John Oliver a British tries to exploit the dilemma on his talk show. John Oliver, a British comedian host of Last Week Tonight spoke about all the bazaar claims of scientific studies on one of his shows. Oliver introduces videos, scientific facts, break news etc. Oliver states that scientist sometimes reveals falsely represented criteria to speed up the studies process. He tells the audience that it is not just the scientist that spreads the false information but also the news media.
For example, Vedula (2012) notes that FDA guidelines state pharmaceutical companies can use peer-reviewed articles to publicize evidence of a drug’s effectiveness for off-label uses, as long as a number of conditions are met—perhaps the most essential of which is that “the information disseminated must not be false or misleading.” However, Vedula continues, there is no unyielding regulation that all research findings have to be published. Therefore, a company can still choose to selectively disseminate favorable findings. His article concludes that there is now a copious amount of evidence that suggests selective reporting of study results, based on the strength and direction of findings, is performed extensively by the pharmaceutical industry.
The general allegation about dishonest presentations is uncomfortable, but these are often scientifically difficult judgements, and are being argued out.
During discussion in class, we talked about what the chapter had to say about how information is gathered and bias. I found this part of the chapters interesting, because it was related in class in a way that I understood. Suddenly, I was thinking about times when I had looked at CNN or Fox News. They always talk about similar topics, but they always have different outcomes for the research. I began to wonder what other topics this could relate to, and I started to become more aware of data with disclaimers or data with endorsements. I was able to find out more about this topic. Upon looking at some graphs, I found a vast amount of research with endorsements had skewed graphs. The graphs were minimized or maximized to look a certain way. In
The deliberate or unintentional bias arising from a conflict contributes to research misconduct2, and failure to address these conflicts may damage the public’s attitude towards science2. Furthermore, non-disclosure of secondary interests adds to the distrust between the researcher and other scientists2. Consequently, the efficiency of research is reduced2: modern research requires scientific collaboration to develop materials, specimens and information2, and doubtful results must be cross-examined to be validated. Furthermore, if the researcher’s actions damage the relationship between scientists and funders, future research may stop, as institutions providing financial support may be reluctant to invest in the researcher2.