Writing Assignment #3
Detailed focus question: How do pentraxins help detect Alzheimer’s disease in humans?
I. At the beginning to have a good understanding of the topic I will explain what the functions or calcium-binding proteins and the locations of calcium-binding proteins. I am going to do this so the reader has a better background understanding on the main topic of the paper.
A. Functions of calcium-binding proteins (Swanson el al., 1992).
1. Regulates mostly cellular processes.
a. They are needed for second messenger signals.
2. Calcium-binding proteins bind directly to Ca2+.
a. Regulates the amount of Ca2+ in the cytosol.
3. They have a huge effect on neurons.
a. This has an effect on learning and …show more content…
3. The C-reactive protein is usually produced in the liver of humans.
C. SAP – Serum amyloid P (Swanson el al., 1992).
1. The basic feature of serum amyloid P is it has a high relationship with phospholipids that are negatively charged.
2. The function of serum amyloid P binds to calcium and it consists of a dimer of pentamer.
a. This allows for defense from pathogens from the body.
3. Serum amyloid P is usually produced in the liver of humans.
III. This last section I will combine all of the ideas that were made above. I will talk about what Alzheimer’s disease is and how C-reactive proteins and serum amyloid P proteins relationship to Alzheimer’s disease.
A. Alzheimer’s disease is a very common disease in the older generations (Dominguez-Prieto el al., 2017).
1. The disease is a progressive disease and it ends up leading to loss of memory.
2. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the increase of beta-amyloid protein.
a. Beta-amyloid protein is what leads to nerve cells dying.
3. Genetic too have a lot to do with Alzheimer’s disease also.
a. When a person has a certain gene mutation they are a lot more likely to have Alzheimer’s disease.
b. The apoE4 gene is the gene that has the strongest correlation with Alzheimer’s disease.
B. C-reactive proteins relationship to Alzheimer’s disease (Yarchoan el al., 2013).
1. There is an increase of C-reactive proteins in people that have Alzheimer’s disease.
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Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, accounting for 65–70% of all cases (Jellinger, Janetzky, Attems, & Kienzl, 2008). The other dementias are of the Parkinson 's group, the fronto-temporal group and the vascular group. The total worldwide yearly costs for the treatment and care of patients suffering from dementia are estimated to be around 250 billion US dollars. The lifetime risk for AD between the ages of 65 and 100 is 33% for men and 45% for women with an annual increase of 1–2% in the seventh decade to almost 60% in the 10th decade with doubling every 5 years (Jellinger et al., 2008). AD is incurable, and thus represents a major public health problem. AD represents a challenge to humanity due to its relatively recent discovery, progressive nature of the illness, and complex diagnosis.
These Amyloid plaques are clumps of protein fragments accumulated between the nerve cells of the brain leading to its damage. In its normal state, these fragments are broken down and disposed but in the case of the Alzheimer’s disorder, these accumulated fragments form a rigid insoluble plaque on the neurons.
Central Idea: Alzheimer's disease affects millions of Americans each year thus it is important to become familiar with the risk factors, symptoms and treatment options available for those living with the disease.
Credibility: I became curious about this disease when my paternal grandmother began losing her memory when I was younger,
Alzheimer’s disease in many ways is not yet defined. It is a progressive disease afflicting between 5 and 15 percent of people over 65. Additionally, it is not restricted to the elderly, reportedly having
Alzheimer’s disease is a complex illness that affects the brain tissue directly and undergoes gradual memory and behavioral changes which makes it difficult to diagnose. It is known to be the most common form of dementia and is irreversible. Over four million older Americans have Alzheimer’s, and that number is expected to triple in the next twenty years as more people live into their eighties and nineties. (Johnson, 1989). There is still no cure for Alzheimer’s but throughout the past few years a lot of progress has been made.
Alzheimer 's is a slow and debilitating disease that generates multiple problems with cognitive skills including; memory, thinking and behavior. (MedlinePlus, 2015) It is especially painful for friends and family members who see their loved ones progressively lose their memory and ability to function as they normally have. Symptoms typically develop gradually and progressively get worse over time, becoming severe enough to put the person afflicted with the disease unable to complete daily tasks and placing themselves at risk. (MedlinePlus, 2015) Alzheimer’s is the most common diagnosed condition of dementia. (MedlinePlus, 2015) Sixty to eighty percent of dementia cases are designated as Alzheimer’s. (MedlinePlus, 2015) Although the greatest known risk factor for Alzheimer’s is increasing age, it is not considered a normal part of aging. The majority of those diagnosed with Alzheimer 's are approximately sixty-five and older. However, Alzheimer’s is not just a disease affected by the older age populations. About 5 percent of people with Alzheimer’s experience early symptoms and the onset Alzheimer 's and most often appears in their forties or fifties. As stated above, Dementia or Alzheimer’s symptoms gradually worsen over time. In the early stages, it is common to experience mild memory loss. Eventually, the ability to carry on a conversation is lost. The sixth leading cause of death in the United States is Alzheimer’s. After Alzheimer’s symptoms become publicly
Even today, after so much study, Alzheimer’s is not fully understood. However, researchers do agree that this degenerative disease is caused by the gradual buildup of fibrous protein compounds in the brain, which are known in the scientific world as amyloids. These amyloids in the brain area act like plaque and as a result of their presence, the normal brain functioning is disrupted.
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive degenerative disease that attacks the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behavior. Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia. Dementia is the lost of thinking, remembering and reasoning so bad it screws up ability to do daily functions and eventually resolves in death. Dr. Alois Alzheimer’s first discovered the disease in 1906. Since then research has developed a deeper understanding of the changes in the brain. Warning sign’s of Alzheimer's are memory loss that affects home and job skills, problem in speaking, poor judgment, and difficulty in learning. The last stage of Alzheimer's disease is when you’re unable to take care of
Alzheimer’s, the most relevant cause of Dementia, is a disease that affects as many as 4.5 million Americans per year (WebMD 2005-2014). Alzheimer’s is a disease that is an irremediable, continuous brain neuron degenerative disease that can be asymptomatic at first and then overtime becomes symptomatic. Alzheimer’s is a gradual disease that advances in three phases: mild, then moderate, and, finally, severe (1). Symptoms appear after the age of 60 and include: the slow destruction of memory and thought processes, and ultimately ends with the absent ability to do normal everyday duties. These symptoms can be anything from forgetting a recent event, or can be as problematic as forgetting the name of a family member. There are many daily
The alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions. Alzheimer's is not a normal part of aging and only up to 5 percent of people with the disease have early onset Alzheimer's (also known as younger-onset), which often appears when someone is in their 40s or 50s. This disease doesn’t have a cure, but there are treatments for symptoms available and research still continues to find the answer to cure this bad disease. Also, an interesting fact is that ninety percent of what we know about Alzheimer's has been discovered in the last 15 years. Lastly, Alzheimer's is a progressive disease, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. In its early stages, memory loss is mild, but with late-stage Alzheimer's, individuals lose the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to their environment. It’s the sixth leading cause of death in the United
Alzheimer’s, a severe irreversible form of dementia, is now a very prevalent issue in the aging population. Scientists are just beginning to understand what Alzheimer’s is, what causes Alzheimer’s and how to prevent it. Although research has come a long way, “Alzheimer’s disease, as science tries to grasp it, seems to slip through our fingers. The complex interaction of neurochemistry, genetics, environment, lifestyle and personality all play a part in how individuals experience Alzheimer’s. ~ Harry Clayton
The research into Alzheimer's Disease has come a long way since 1906 when it is was discovered by Alois Alzheimer. He detected microscopic brain tissue changes called senile and neuritic plaques in deceased patients. These are chemical deposits consisting of protein molecules called Amyloid Precursor Protein(APP) that are fundamental components of a normal brain. However in the brain of an Alzheimer patient, an enzyme cuts the APP apart and leaves fragments in the brain tissue. These combined with degenerating nerve cells cause the plaques or lesions. These lesions are found in many sections of the brain including the hippocampus which regulates emotion and memory, the basal forebrain, and especially the basal nucleus of Meynert and the cortex, where the memory function is located.(2) Another sign of a diseased brain are neurofibrillary tangles, which are malformations within nerve cells.
Alzheimer is a disease that affects the elderly most. The disease was discovered by Dr. Alois Alzheimer in the year 1906 when he was examining a female’s brain. He found out that the woman displayed memory loss, language problems and some inexplicable changes in behavior. The disease was named after the doctor who was a German psychiatrist and a neuropathologist. Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative brain disorder that leads to memory loss, personality changes, and language problems (Gilbert & Julie 2). The disease is mostly diagnosed in people over the age of 65 years, though there is a small minority of people under the age of 50 who get the disease. Studies show that 1% of a whole population aged between the ages 65-75 have severe