Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ) And Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus
MGH Institute of Health Professions
Joshua Igoe-Muzorewa

Introduction Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) continues to be an incredibly important health concern for not only the United States (US) but across the Globe (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016a). In the US alone, there are an estimated 1.2 million people that as of 2013 are living with the disease (CDC, 2016a). Scientists believe that HIV derived and mutated from a virus known as the Simian Immunodeficiency virus which was prevalent in chimpanzees, during a time that humans were hunting and consuming chimpanzee meat (CDC, 2016a). HIV in the US was primarily discovered and defined …show more content…

Stages of HIV HIV is categorized into three possible stages of disease. Stage 1 is considered the Acute HIV infection stage. In 2 to 4 weeks following exposure to the infection, individuals have reported experiencing flu-type symptoms which last at a varying rate and individuals are extremely contagious without knowing they are infected (CDC, 2016b). Stage 2 is known as HIV inactivity or dormancy (CDC, 2016b). This is a phase that is typically asymptomatic, where there is still a live, active virus, but it is reproducing itself at a significantly low level (CDC, 2016b). With proper medication intervention, this stage can last for several decades, without it, they become more symptomatic (CDC, 2016b). As an individual’s viral load increases, they become more symptomatic, and their risk of infecting others also increases significantly. These individuals are at risk of moving into stage 3 known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); requires a CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/mm or specific opportunistic illness (CDC, 2016b).
Populations at Risk HIV goes beyond race and ethnicity, into a category that is called ‘Transmission Category’. The most at risk group here are gay and bisexual men, which are noted for making up 67% of all new HIV diagnoses compared to heterosexual sex which accounts for 24% of new diagnoses (CDC, 2015). Another group that is considered to be most at risk for HIV infection are

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