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Long Island Sound ( Lis ) Essay

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Long Island Sound (LIS) is a major urban estuary located along the east coast of the United States. It is semi-enclosed by states and islands in all directions. LIS is bordered by the State of Connecticut to the north and Long Island, New York (NY) on its southern shore. To its west it connects to the NY metropolitan area and to the east it is closed off by Block Island and Fishers Island Sounds. Due to the restricted transport and dispersal of contaminants, LIS is susceptible to enhanced anthropogenic impacts. Sewage effluent, industrial discharge, agricultural and urban runoff, atmospheric deposition, combined inputs from major rivers, and disposal of dredged material are the major routes of contaminants into LIS (1). There is a correlation that the number of marine systems that become exposed to both treated and untreated wastewater discharges increases, as there are concurrent increases in population around coastal areas. The environmental quality of receiving waters may be compromised due to thousands of different chemicals released via sewage inputs. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest on a specific chemical known as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Antimicrobials, fragrances, therapeutic drugs, some polymers, and surfactants are all categorized as PPCPs. In developed countries, most wastewater are treated in order to ensure that the majority of the chemicals, or a very significant portion of the chemicals, are removed
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