Montgomery Bus Boycotts: Role of Women in the Civil Rights Movement
During the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's and 60's, women played an undeniably significant role in forging the path against discrimination and oppression. Rosa Parks and Jo Ann Robinson were individual women whose efforts deserve recognition for instigating and coordinating the Montgomery Bus Boycotts of 1955 that would lay precedent for years to come that all people deserved equal treatment despite the color of their skin. The WPC, NAACP, and the Montgomery Churches provided the channels to organize the black public into a group that could not be ignored as well supported the black community throughout the difficult time of the boycott.
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One of the Champions of the American Civil Rights Movement was Rosa Parks. A native of Tuskegee Alabama, she was said by some to be the mother of the African American Civil Rights Movement. Making a living as a seamstress, she was highly involved in the local efforts of the N.A.A.C.P. (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) as well as exceedingly active in her church congregation, Rosa Parks would become infamous for simply refusing to be treated differently because of the color of her skin. Aboard the Cleveland Avenue bus coming home from work on the evening of December 1st 1955, an already weary Rosa Parks was instructed by the bus driver to surrender her seat to a Caucasian man who had boarded the bus subsequent to her. When she refused to do so, the police were summoned and she consequentially was arrested. This was her first time to be under arrest, but she conducted herself in a professional and dignified manner despite the extreme injustice she was being served (Johnson 212). Jo Ann Robinson called Rasa Parks a woman of "high morals and a strong character". She was exactly what the N.A.A.C.P. needed for a plaintiff in their proposed civil suit against the bus company (Marcus 260).
Having been pondering filling a lawsuit for some time, the N.A.A.C.P. had been waiting for the right plaintiff. They had determined that a woman would be the most suitable candidate since she would receive the most sympathy from
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On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, one of the leaders of the local branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [NAACP] refused to give up her seat to a white person on a segregated city bus in Montgomery, Alabama, despite being reprimanded by the driver (Schulke 166). Montgomery, Alabama was known for its terrible treatment of blacks. The buses in particular had been a source of tension between the city and black citizens for many years (Schulke, 167). As a result of refusing to give up her seat, Rosa Parks was arrested. Rosa Parks' popularity among the black community, proved to be the spark that ignited the non-violent Civil Rights Movement (Norrell 2).
Rosa Parks was known for her unplanned act of defiance that lead to the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 (Dudley 258). The attributes that she contributed to Civil Rights was her commitment to the cause, her positive attitude, and her ability to inspire others. Rosa Parks had got onto a public bus after a long day of work, and her feet were hurting, so she decided to sit in the white section. The white people complained and the bus driver told her if she did not get up, then she would be arrested. Nevertheless, with Rosa Park’s refusal to get up, it led to her arrest. Due to her commitment to the cause she stood up for racial equality, and though all of the turmoil she encountered she kept a positive attitude. Her ability to inspire others was remarkable, therefore it led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott was due to the fact that African Americans were exasperated due to the fact that they were not being treated equally. This then led to all African Americans walking to and from wherever they were
To start off, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in 1955. She became a nationally recognized symbol of dignity and strength in the struggle to end racial segregation. Rosa Parka helped initiate the civil rights movement in the United States just by being brave. She decided to stand out and not accept the fact that she was being treated unfairly. On a typical day, an average of 70 percent or more riders were black. Parks stepped onto James Blake crowded bus just 12 days earlier. Paid her fare at the front, then resisted the rule in place for blacks to
The Montgomery Bus Boycott changed the history on how people live and interact today. The key for this to succeed was two prominent activists, Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks who were present during the Bus Boycott and led the people to unify to fight for equality. But this wouldn't be a possible success without the support, and determination of all African American community. During the twentieth century segregation among African American in the South was extremely inhuman. African American were treated differently because of the color of their skin. It was almost impossible for African American to be treated with respect and equality, they were segregated in schools, restaurants, buses, libraries, public bathrooms, drinking fountains,
The Montgomery Bus Boycott embodies Martin Luther King jr’s belief in nonviolence. In “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence”, Martin Luther King jr describes how he was influenced by Gandhi’s teachings, specifically the Gandhian method of nonviolence. He states, “nonviolence became more than a method to which I gave intellectual assent; it became a commitment to a way of life” (MLK 38). His commitment to the use of non violence is seen in his leadership role during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott began soon after Rosa Parks’s refusal to give up her seat on the bus to a white man. During this boycott, MLK encouraged African Americans to boycott the buses.
Rosa Parks grew up in a time when African Americans were treated unfairly (Chanko 1). Everyday after work, Rosa would take the bus home. There was rules regarding to riding the bus that African Americans had to follow and whites did not(Chanko 5), and one of the rules were that the whites sat in the front and the African Americans sat in the back. Another rule of riding the bus was that African Americans could sit in the middle towards the front of the bus, but if there was a white person that needed a seat, then they would had to get up and move to the back. On December 1, 1955, Rosa got on the bus to go home and she paid before she sat down (Chanko ). She sat down, but she sat in the middle towards the front of the bus (Chanko 6). After many stops, there was a white person that needed a seat, so the bus driver told Rosa to get up and move to the back and she refused to do so. The bus driver called the police and the police had her arrested and taken to jail for not giving up her seat to a white person (Chanko 8). Rosa
Priya Patel Mr. Doogan, p.8 American in History III, 6.0 14 January 2015 Rosa Parks’ Impact Rosa Parks had a tremendous impact on the United States. She stood up for what she believed in and did everything in her power to make a difference, which was to fight not only fight for her rights, but also the rights of the black community. Before her arrest, she was an active member of many organizations, and worked as a seamstress in Alabama. One day, in 1955, after a long and tiring day at work, she took the bus home and refused to move her seat for a white man, causing her to get arrested. This moment started the Civil Rights movements through boycotts and other nonviolent protests.
The Montgomery Bus Boycotts contributed to many changes in the perspectives of many black people during the civil rights movement. When Rosa Parks was arrested for not moving her seat on a bus in Montgomery, there was a spark in anger which caused the boycott of all buses in Montgomery (“New York Times Article, January 1956 negroes”).After this, the blacks who participated got inspired and started to change their perspectives on the civil rights movement. These people now thought that the movement was not fighting for enough and that they needed to fight for not just civil rights, but economic, political, and social justice. They were also questioning the path of the movement that had a nonviolent agenda. The discontent with the fact that the
The History of Rosa Parks Rosa Parks once said, “Each person must live their lives as a role model for others.” Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on December 1st, 1955. Rosa Parks sparked a boycott that started a civil rights movement. She was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man. From being named “ Mother of Freedom Movement”, organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and showing major characteristics as a great role model, Rosa Parks was able to help stop segregation.
By refusing to give up her seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama city bus (1955), Rosa helped initiate the civil rights movement across the United States. She is an extraordinary person
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was one of the first major protests for Martin Luther King Jr. It originally started with a young girl named Claudette Colvin who didn't give up her seat on the bus for a white man. But, there was more of an impact when Rosa Parks did the same thing some months later. As the bus came to more of its stops the white section of the bus was full and the bus driver asked Rosa to stand so they could sit. When she didn’t move she was arrested. “On the night that Rosa Parks was arrested, E.D. Nixon, head of the local NAACP chapter met with Martin Luther King Jr. and other local civil rights leaders to plan a citywide bus boycott.” (Martin Luther King Jr. Biography) The NAACP all agreed that Martin should lead the boycott
Rosa Louise Parks, a seamstress, made history as a civil rights activist when she started the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Rosa Parks was born to a poor family. She worked hard and she succeeded. To make a huge change, all it takes is one small decision. This’ll be closed with a quote from Rosa herself: “I would like to be known as a person who is concerned about freedom and equality and justice and prosperity for all
Women held a large significance in the organization of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The black women’s political party had been planning the boycott for months prior to the actual event, for months daily some black man women or child had had an unpleasant experience on the bus stated Jo Ann Gibson Robison (source 7). Anne Standley author of the article The Role of Black Women in the Civil Rights Movement (source 6) concurred that women exerted an enormous influence both formally as members of the upper echelon of SNCC, SLCL and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and informally as spontaneous leaders and dedicated participants. Then continued in saying the leader of the Bus Boycott was Martin Luther King Jr. yet the Women’s Political Party
"The only tired I was, was tired of giving in." Says Rosa Parks. In 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat, leading to her arrest. Sparked by said arrest, the Montgomery Bus Boycott started and didn't stop until bus segregation was declared unconstitutional in 1956. I believe that a hero should make an impact on peoples lives. I believe that Rosa Parks made a strong impact on peoples lives because she is brave, tenacious, and has integrity. Rosa is a hero because she shows great bravery. Despite the rules, she stayed seated knowing that she could be severely punished for not moving seats. To be brave, you have to be ready to face and endure danger or pain, without showing fear. She did not fear her punishment, she accepted it. She knew
Rosa Louise McCauley was born in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913. She went to Alabama State teachers’ college for Negroes, her education was shortly ended when her mother fell ill. She then married a man named Raymond Parks, who was a barber. December 1943, she then joined the NAACP as a Chapter Secretary. Rosa Parks was legally arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person.