Nature Vs. Nurture
Mario Puzo's, Omerta, reflects the theory of Thomas Hobbes In the state of nature, where the theory states, that in the state of nature" no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."(The Modern Age: Ideas In Western Civilization, Page 37-30) In Peter Cary's, True History of the Kelly Gang, which conveys the theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, "Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can …show more content…
We was raised to think the blacks was the lowest of the low [
]"(Page 14). Ned's mother would beat the children if they did wrong as a disciplinary action: "I cautioned him. You say that one more time I'll whip you"(Page 80). This is reflective of learned behavior from his mother. The beginning of Carey's novel also talks about the rich landlord that will not provide proper fences and solid housing for them to live in. This causes a lot of resentment against the bourgeoisie, thus conditioning and forcing Ned to revolt against the upper class. All events in his childhood help mould him into the person he later becomes. For instance, when Ned saves Dick Shelton from drowning, he gets a taste of the rich lifestyle. Mr. and Mrs. Shelton treat Ned to anything and everything he wants, but the Sheltons go so far as to releasing his father back into society, proving to be a poor choice. Ned's father returns home for a night, takes all the money they have, and leaves. He does this in retribution for Ned's acts: Ned had stolen and killed a cow and allowed his father take the imprisonment as punishment. Ned Kelly's life is one being shaped by external events, and the beliefs and actions of his parents.
Both novels have very contradictory theories on human state and development. On one side of the spectrum is Mario Puzo's Omerta, and on the other is Peter Carey's True History of the Kelly Gang. Omerta suggests that genetics and natural course will dictate one's fate. Puzo's
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Rousseau believed that to uplift ourselves out of the state of nature, man must partake in the course of being the sovereign that provided the protection. The contrast between Rousseau’s concepts and those of the liberals of his time, originated with different understandings and interpretations of the state of nature. Classical liberal thinkers like Thomas Hobbes defined the state of nature as an unsafe place, where the threat of harm to one’s property was always an existent. He
“I have freedom,” you say? Do you really? Perhaps, in some ways, you do. But in the end, you’re just another puppet being controlled by invisible strings whether you know it or not. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains,” Jean-Jacques Rousseau once said. In society, man is “chained” and controlled by the government, by pressure of conforming to the social norms, by wealth and social class, and by one’s desires and emotions. Prior to birth, man is not restricted by such factors but that is merely a fleeting moment as he is slowly exposed to more and more of the world. I agree that “everywhere [man] is in chains,” but on the contrary, I believe man is already chained from the start—that man is never free. In the novel, Brave New
A state of nature is a hypothetical state of being within a society that defines such a way that particular community behaves within itself. English philosopher Thomas Hobbes proclaimed that, “A state of nature is a state of war.” By this, Hobbes means that every human being, given the absence of government or a contract between other members of a society, would act in a war-like state in which each man would be motivated by desires derived solely with the intention of maximizing his own utility.
The novel Frankenstein written by Mary Shelley in 1818, suggested that the traumatic events that happened to the creature turned him into a monster. The exposure we see in Frankenstein leads to the idea of nature versus nurture. Frankenstein suggested to us that nurture has a stronger influence on us then nature. I want to investigate whether someone is born a monster or whether society shapes them into the monster they become. Opinions on this topic vary from critic to critic. The first critic is Abbey Young (2013), her article relates and supports my hypothesis and it also talks about Frankenstein becoming a victim. The second critic by Anonymous #1 (2012) talks about both nature and nurture, their opinion on the matter is that Victor Frankenstein falls victim to nature and the creature is a victim of nurture. The third critic is Anonymous #2 (2012) they think that nurture had been the main influence for the creature's actions, all of the critics differ from one another.
Ned was a victim for many reasons that were out of his control. He was victimised because he was raised in an Irish family and because he was the oldest male in his family he had to take up the role of his father and it would have been hard growing up with no role model. Almost all of the male members of his family were involved in crime. This forced Ned to become a criminal because the police thought of him as one of the Kelly family and a criminal. Ned grew up in an Irish family and his family were criminals this means for the rest of Ned’s life he would be victimised by the federal authorities. This makes Ned a victim of colonial society.
The irony of Ned’s death influences Tim to be nonbelligerent. During the onslaught of Captain Starr’s house, one of the house’s slaves, Ned, is gratuitously killed. The authors, Christopher and James Lincoln Collier state, “‘ There are some damned blacks in here, what shall we
To Locke, the “State of Nature” is a state in which every human being is his own king, who answers to no higher authority than his own conscience and will. Although this “State of Nature” offers complete freedom; this freedom is accompanied by an amorphous mass of fears and insecurities that stem from devolution that Locke called the “State of War”. The “State of War” occurs when one individual tyrannizes another (either to enslave him or to take over his property) and the victim of this relationship rightfully decides to defend himself. In the “State of War” the tyrant tries to deprive the individual of the rights that he is naturally entitled to.
State of nature theories previously defined and developed by notable philosophers became a guide for the state of nature discourse in Frankenstein. Initially, Shelley seems to side with Thomas Hobbes in her ideas regarding man’s state of nature. Hobbes asserted that man is naturally violent and “the condition of Man...is a condition of Warre of every one against every one” (Hobbes). By using Hobbes’s definition of the condition of man, one would infer that a constant state of violence would be apparent in a state of nature. Conflict is an uncontrollable repercussion of man’s inherent fear and
The state of nature is the idea of life without society, government, state, or laws. John Locke and Hobbes both agree that the state of nature is equivalent to a state of perfect freedom and equality, although they both understand these terms differently. Hobbes argues that equality leads to inequality in the state of nature. Inequality arises from the idea of man having the right to pursue their self-interest, with no duties to each other. Without duties to each other when, “Any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies” (Hobbes 184). In the Hobbesian natural state, man is made up of diffidence and lives with no security other than what he can provide himself (Hobbes 185). By virtue, men will enter a continuous state of war for self-preservation because it is man’s natural right to act on what he thinks is necessary to protect himself.
The state of nature can be characterized as the state before civil society, before government where all men agreed to enter into a social contract. Locke and Rousseau both believed that men were not savages as some might believe. The state of nature was in some cases even better than what we have become today. In fact, both Locke and Rousseau believed that in the state of nature all men had natural rights and followed natural God given or inherent laws that signified the freedom of men from tyranny.
One of the first political theorists, Aristotle once wrote in his novel Politics, “Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who is unsocial naturally and not accidentally is either beneath our notice or more than human. Society is something that precedes the individual. Anyone who either cannot lead the common life or is so self-sufficient as not to need to, and therefore does not partake of society, is either a beast or a god. ” (Aristotle 4) Dating back to Ancient Greece, the state of nature has been observed and disputed for centuries. It wasn’t until the 1600s, was Aristotle’s theory ever seriously debated. Thomas Hobbes developed his own theory on what is the state of nature in his novel The Leviathan. This writing sparked interest in philosophers as to what human nature truly is, not just what Aristotle had suggested. Just thirty-eight years later, John Locke anonymously published his writings Two Treatises of Government, suggesting a differing outlook on the state of nature to Hobbes. Through a summarization of each philosopher’s depiction of the state of nature and explanations of the strengths and weaknesses of each theory, one will be able to find which argument is the most compelling.
Limits must be put on freedom and inalienable rights. Hobbes lived in the 17th century, and wrote during the time of the English Civil War. His political views were most likely influenced by the war. Hobbes perceived that by bringing back the monarch, or any other sovereign, there would be an end to the civil war and is “necessary to peace and depending on sovereign power” (415). The original state of nature, according to Rousseau, is the perfect state for man, where he is born free but is everywhere in chains (The Social Contract, 49). In the original state, man lives alone in innocence where he is virtuous. Rousseau does not agree that man is an aggressive and greedy being in the original state of nature; in contrast, the life of man is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” as Hobbes suggests (Leviathan, 408). Rousseau argues that men are truly happy in the state of nature. Only when men become sociable, they become wicked. In Rousseau’s Social Contract, man is depicted as an ignorant, unimaginative animal.
In Hobbes book Leviathan, he makes the natural man out to be a self obsessed monster who is only interested in his own self preservation. This would intern leave the state of nature to be consumed with war, “...because the condition of man is conditions of war of everyone against everyone”. With out the constrain of government Hobbes states “So that in the state of nature man will find three principal causes of quarrel: first, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory” (Leviathan, 76). These principles would then leave men in the state of nature, with a life that Hobbes describes as “solitary, poor nasty, brutish, and short” (Leviathan, 76). Over all Hobbes view on the state of nature is a materialistic world where without an “absolute sovereign” the life of man would be nothing more then the “state of war”.
Hobbes believes that in the state of nature, humans have no laws, morals, police force, property, government, culture, knowledge, or durable infrastructure. Within this state of nature, people have no morals and do as they please without any consequence. As