Opioid Use Disorder (OUD)

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According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5, opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterized by patterns of opioid use that are problematic and persist for at least one year (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Evidence of problematic use of opioid is demonstrated through the presence of at least 2 symptoms which include withdrawal, craving, and continued use of opioids despite the disruptions it causes in personal and professional life. The substances used by persons with OUD are heroin and nonmedical pain relievers ([NMPR]; i.e. nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers), and estimates for DSM-5-defined OUD tend to combine the prevalence of use for each of these substances to determine overall …show more content…

Therefore, the overall estimates of OUD reported in this paper are combinations of the prevalence of disordered use of these opioids. Moreover, in this paper, incidence of OUD is described by reporting past-year first time use of opioids. This measure is an alternative for reporting of incidence rates due to challenges with its measurement (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014). This paper describes the occurrence of OUD and its risk factors. Moreover, this paper will highlight prevention and treatment models, as well as abuse-deterrent technologies that have been created. Altogether, the findings of the paper demonstrate demographics changes in the trends of OUD occurrence, as well as the challenges in treating and preventing OUD.
According the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the 2014 12-month prevalence of OUD among persons aged ≥12 years old was 0.9%, which consisted primarily of NMPR use (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics …show more content…

Unlike OST, detoxification generally aims for opioid abstinence. Detoxification tends to be less successful than OST (Kleber, 2007). However, persons will seek this treatment for many reasons, such as a means to reduce costs associated with having an OUD. Some also choose to detox prior to entering a treatment program or before starting OST. Despite the fact that this approach is less effective, persons who undergo a complete detoxification relapse slower than those who dropout of detoxification. However, there are drugs that can be prescribed in order to prevent or delay relapse, as well as prevent withdrawal symptoms Examples of drugs that some patients will taper include methadone, buprenorphine, or clonidine (Kleber,

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