Political Rivalries And The Islamic World

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• 7th century CE- Islam arose and spread from the Arabian peninsula across Africa, Asia, and southern Europe
• After the 7th century CE- Muslim, Jewish, Armenian, Indian merchants and other regional commercial groups became key links in the trade between civilizations from the western Mediterranean to the South China Sea o Muslim traders transferred food crops, technology, and ideas
• Islamic world was divided by political rivalries, vast cultural and linguistic diversity, and religious sectarianism
• 7th -4th centuries: political rivalries made technological and organizational innovations that strengthened the Islamic world

• In the scrub zones Bedouin (nomadic)cultures developed based on camel and goat herding o Bedouin world, where Islam arose, shaped the career of its prophet, his teachings, and the spread of the new beliefs o Key towns such as Mecca and Medina were extensions of the culture of the camel nomads
• Bedouin herders lived in kin-related clan groups in highly mobile tent encampments o The harsh environment caused a strong dependence on and loyalty to one’s family and clan
• Shaykhs- leaders of the tribe with several wives, many children, and numerous retainers
• Clan cohesion was reinforced by fierce interclan rivalries
• One’s honor depended on respect for one’s clan and any small insult can lead to a circle of violence where the whole clan got involved
• Mecca-located along the Red Sea and founded by the Umayyad clan of the Quraysh Bedouin tribe who
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