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Polymerase Chain Reaction ( Pcr )

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MB&B/BIO 181 | Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Name: Teresa Naval

INTRODUCTION
Scientifically, why is the study of Alu insertions interesting? (10 pts) Alu insertions are biological tools that can trace human history, evolution, and migration. In particular, Alu is often used to understand prehistory because all primates (including humans) with Alu insertions at specific locations can be traced to common ancestors [3].
Alu is sometimes referred to as a “jumping gene” because it copies itself to shift to new locations. While it is technically not a gene, the way Alu insertions are inherited (i.e. passed down from parents to offspring) is much like that of a gene. It is not a gene, however, because Alu does not code for any protein. It
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Batzer and Deininger (2002) even mention that “Alu insertions account for ~0.1% of all human genetic disorders (p. 374)” including some forms of cancer and diabetes. Alu, then, allows researchers to create a biological map of human activity.

What are the objectives of this lab? (5 pts) Using polymerase chain reaction (PRC), this lab focuses on the amplification of DNA extracted from cheek cells. The experiment aims to discover the presence or absence of the human Alu insertion in the PV92 locus on chromosome 16. It aims to enable the students to understand how PCR works, and how it is used to understand DNA fragments.
Another objective of this lab is to understand the implications of Alu insertions in human evolution, and to examine some of the genomic variations within the human species using a sample population in the laboratory. METHODS
What steps are involved in carrying out PCR and biologically, what happens during each step? Why did we use PCR? (15 pts)
A. Preparing the Cheek Cells (Pre-PCR) The process of isolating cheek cells began with rinsing the inside of the mouth with 0.90% saline solution. A micropipette was used to transfer 1,500 uL of the solution into a tube, which was then placed in a microcentrifuge to spin at 8000 rpm for 90 seconds. The centrifuge made sure that the contents of the solution were segregated by weight, with the DNA precipitate (cell pellet) settling at the bottom. The supernatant was removed, and
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