Science with all its marvels and wonders continues to press forward making extraordinary breakthroughs. Psychology plays a key role in many of sciences steps forward, each branch of psychology focusing on a specific techniques and theories. In the document the center of attention is surrounding the application of clinical psychology, this branch of psychology is unique as it all realms of an individual’s issue. Specifically speaking, anxiety is the psychological disorder that is under review through the processes of a clinical
“Anxiety is the signal of danger which mobilizes the human organism’s resources at all levels of functioning in the interests of conservation, defense, and self- preservation.” (Anxiety 1) If a person suffers from anxiety there is a major loss of control and then an attempt to regain that control because of a fear that they have. Anxiety disorders are one of the most frequently occurring mental disorders in the United States. However, anxiety disorders are not only found in the United States. They are found throughout the world. They just happen to be most predominating in the United States. In this paper, I will be discussing the generalized anxiety disorder and how if effects society today.
What causes all of these symptoms? Anxiety is known as a physiological or behavioral change that causes the formation of symptoms and affects the coping mechanism that affects a person’s everyday reaction to a stressor (Stuart 219). These changes occur at the autonomic nervous system, which influences the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems which are in turn responsible for body processes. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the “fight or flight” defense system which is what causes anxiety. Anxiety is perceived by the cortex of the brain which sends a stimuli to the adrenal glands which then release epinephrine, which causes you to breathe harder, you pulse and blood pressure increase. Blood moves away from the stomach and intestines where it was used to digestion and it shifts towards the heart, CNS, and muscles to replenish resources used during flight or fight (Stuart 220-1). GABA and Serotonin are also both responsible for the cause of anxiety. GABA which is affects the amygdale and hippocampus which is the center for emotions such as fear, arousal, and rage. Dysregulated Serotonin is likely play a role in the cause of anxiety (Stuart 222).
The research question for this paper is: what are possible origins of or influences contributing to anxiety? Anxiety is a disorder where the individual experiences fear greater than what the situation warrants, and is currently the third largest psychiatric disorder in the United States (Schneier, 2003). However, the origins of anxiety is not entirely clear yet, and different schools of thought have formed different theories and explanations for this disorder. Knowing and understanding the possible origins of anxiety can assist in the development of treatments.
The amygdala is made up of a group of nuclei located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. (Mannironi, et al., 2013) The amygdala is believed to be key in stress response integration with its extensive network of efferent outcrops to other regions of the brain. (Mannironi, et al., 2013) Stress mediators such as adrenaline, cortisol, and corticotrophin releasing hormone, contribute to neuronal operative change and plasticity that are instrumental contributory to the stress response. (Mannironi, et al., 2013) Acute psychological stress creates a instant surge of hormone release, neuronal activation, and neurotransmission. (Mannironi, et al., 2013) This activation has an intense effect on the brain, leading to structural modification in the synaptic connectivity and dendritic spine morphology. (Mannironi, et al., 2013)
Fear is a survival mechanism. Our brains are able to detect when there is a source of stress that might be a threat, it then activates a series of events that enable us to be ready to fight or escape. This reaction is scientifically known as “fight or flight.” When stress activates that part of the brain, known as amygdala region, it overrides conscious thought which allows the brain to contribute all of its energy into facing the threat.
According to Laura King stress is “the responses of individuals to environmental stressors [changes].” In psychology stress is used in a much longer scale. When the body comes to the sense of fear, the brain reacts with responses such as sweaty palms, fast heartbeat and restlessness to name a few. In psychology, the topic of stress can be though-provoking because it is one of the first insights into the human brain. When things start to be stimulus in the body that is a sign of the nervous system beginning, this is interesting to psychologist because their whole career is centered on how the brain works and functions to other things. When placed in our own lives stress can easily consume one’s thoughts and actions. Most of the time when thinking about
Anxiety, it’s part of every day life. It is a feeling of fear that interfears with our daily activity brought on by traumatic events. The feeling of being worried, fearful, or apprehensive. Even though some level of anxiety is part of everyday life but when it starts to control your life, that’s when things really get out of hand. What causes anxiety? Maybe a big test or a job interview, but that’s normal. What’s not normal is if you’re worrying that if you breath in air, your lungs will burn and shrivel up. That is what is referred to as Acute Stress.
Anxiety is the body’s biological and psychological response to stressors. A stressor can be anything that cause an individual to feel threatened or cause stress. The body decides whether or not a situation is too difficult to deal with alone based upon past experiences and what it sees and hears. When a stressor is detected, the body’s stress response system known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), begins a surge of biological events. As a result, the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol are released. In the brain, the hypothalamus will then send a chemical message to the pituitary gland. However, people can
Anxiety is the body’s natural reaction to stress. It allows a person to prepare for an event that could be harmful. Anxiety stems from the amygdala, a section in the brain that is in charge of emotions and our natural "fight-or-flight" response. As these signals spread throughout the body, the nervous system causes the heart to begin to pump more blood and tense up the muscles. Anxiety has both a physical and psychological effect on humans. The effects that stress and anxiety have on the body can be incredibly dangerous if it is not treated properly
The interpretation of stress is believed to occur in the cerebral cortex of the brain based upon sensory and other input (such as from chemo-receptors). The two categories of stress act through somewhat different neurological mechanisms, but the general features are similar. Cognitive processes are involved in the assessment of the input for both categories as to whether the input represents a potential threat in a routine manner. The amygdala appears to have a central role in the stress response [46, 47]. Amygdala neurons release corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) which has two major effects: it causes the brain stem (including the rostral ventrolateral medulla) to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through spinal nerves, and
It is natural for a person to have a sense of stress and worry throughout the their daily experiences. Whether it has to do with work, school or finances. Surprisingly it is also natural for some people to experience fear, nervousness, and anxiousness out of nowhere. People may think it is abnormal to have a rush of emotions out of the blue, but this is something a lot of people in society have to deal with on a daily basis. The combination of these emotion reflexes is what is known as anxiety. Anxiety is a mental disorder that makes a person have sudden unwanted feelings of fear, anxiousness, and worrisome. Having an anxiety episode is something the can frequently occur and take a troll on a person’s mental and physical health. Anxiety is
Fundamentally, anxiety is a natural response to stress or difficult situations. The human body initiates anxiety reactions to help heighten senses, speed reaction time, and try to anticipate possible outcomes in intense situations. The downside is that when these responses become uncontrolled or involuntary,
Yet the stress experience is one we can all relate to and which has shared qualities. Stress is the tension that we feel within us whenever we feel threatened. When we see something outside of us that is threatening, we tense up in reaction. Imagine yourself as a spring. When everything is going well and you feel safe and secure, your spring is relaxed. But if something unexpected happens that weren 't counting on, you react by tensing up your spring. This creates a tense feeling within. A tense reaction occurs both in our mind and in our emotions. In our mind where we observe what is happening, we interpret what we see as threatening. Our perception of a threat triggers an emotional reaction. The emotion that we often feel is fear.
When an individual is exposed to a stressful situation the amygdala, a section of your brain, which is responsible for processing the thoughts and feelings of stress, activates resulting in biological changes within the human body. The amygdala is often