The lungs are the only internal organs that are exposed to the external environment and are vulnerable to a variety of ailments. Fibrosis is a general term referring to a disease involving the scarring of the lungs (The air sacs in the lungs gradually become replaced by scar). The scarring of the tissue caused air sacs to become thick and make the patient much harder to breathe. When the scar tissue has been formed, it can not be removed surgically repaired completely with medication.
There are many different types of pulmonary fibrosis. The main difference between pulmonary fibrosis is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, is a subset of pulmonary fibrosis where the cause of the disease is unknown, another example of pulmonary fibrosis is airway-centered interstitial fibrosis, this type is characterized as having fibrosis around the bronchial, bronchioles are …show more content…
However, this therapy can involve complications such as infection, rejection.
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor, protein buildup causing thick mucus and secretions in lungs, pancreas, liver & intestines. The clinical manifestations include respiratory with recurrent lung infections (S. aureus, Pseudomonas), productive cough, dyspnea, chest pain, wheezing, the gastrointestinal with meconium ileus at birth, later failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea, systemic with infertility and heart exhaustion. Obstructive Lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency, elevated chloride in sweat diagnostic will lead to a bronchiectasis, infertility, growth delays and Meconium Ileus (MC initial presentation)
The main difference between pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis is that cystic fibrosis is present from birth and a congenital disorder, an inherited disease that affects many organs like lungs, digestive system, sweat glands by a mutation in a
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Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which mucus glands produce abnormally thick secretions. These secretions can lead to chronic infections of the lungs and eventually lead to obstruction of the pancreas, resulting in digestive enzyme deficiency, the liver is also sometimes affected. Secretions from the sweat and salivary glands of a CF patient frequently contain abnormally high amounts of sodium and chloride. Because the body produces a high amount of salt, a sweat test is generally used to diagnose the disorder.
Cystic Fibrosis is a chromosomal abnormality, meaning that one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes are not what they are supposed to be. A person without Cystic Fibrosis has a gene in chromosome 7, which produces a normal and substantial amount of protein called Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which in turn produces thin and watery mucus. A person with Cystic Fibrosis has a gene in chromosome 7, which produces either abnormal CFTR protein or no CFTR protein at all, which causes the body to produce thick and sticky mucus. People who are born with Cystic Fibrosis have two copies of the gene. One gene is received by each parent. In most cases, parents of people with Cystic Fibrosis, usually both carry the gene, however, the Cystic Fibrosis gene they are carry is recessive compared to the normal gene, allowing the normal gene it take over due to its dominance. This means that they do not have Cystic Fibrosis themselves. According to Cystic Fibrosis Queensland (2015) there is a one in four chance a person will have Cystic Fibrosis, a two in four chance that person will have the gene but not the disease and there is a one in four chance that the person will not have the disease or gene at all. The Cystic Fibrosis gene is easily passed on, however, the disorder not so much. The disorder is only passed on if a person obtains both the Cystic Fibrosis genes from their parents.
Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease which is progressive and limits breathing ability. The lungs and other organs are affected by a thick buildup of mucus. This mucus traps bacteria which leads lung damage, infections, and respiratory failure. The digestive enzymes being released is prevented, affecting the breakdown of food and nutrients being absorbed. ?More than 30,000 children and adults in the United States have Cystic Fibrosis. 70,000 people worldwide.? (Diagnosed With Cystic Fibrosis, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation) Someone who has Cystic Fibrosis have a defective gene from each parent which produces faulty protein. The CFTR gene is the gene that is mutated causing this. The channel that transports chloride in and out of cells is created by instructions that are created by CFTR gene. The regulation of chloride ions and water are prevented creating the thick mucus formed on the passageways of lungs, pancreas, and other organs. Cystic Fibrosis doesn?t cause learning problems are mobility of the person. Babies with this still develop and grow up normally. The average life expectancy is close to 40 years, and has been increasing in the last fifty years thanks to improved care. ?Chronic coughing, recurring chest colds, wheezing, shortness of breath, frequent sinus infections, and allergies that last all year, are the most common symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis.? (Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms) Since this disease is progressive
Today, there is no cure for Cystic Fibrosis, but if the disease is found in an individual early enough, the patient can be recovered. About 85 to 90% of patients will have problems absorbing nutrients from their intestines. And because enzymes are lost when diagnosed, enzyme supplements are required to prevent bad nutrition and malnutrition. There are two main body parts that can be cared for the treatment of Cystic Fibrosis: The lungs and the chest. Lung problems can also be treated, but not cured. Antibiotics and other drugs may loosen the thick mucus in the lungs, but if it fails, a transplant lung may help to extend life. But about four hundred people die each year while waiting for a lung transplant. Also Chest physical therapy is a technique done by vigorous claps on the back and chest to loosen the thick mucus from the lungs. The average lifespan of an individual with CF is about thirty years.
Cystic Fibrosis cannot be developed or contracted it is something you’re born with. CF is a recessive disease, it occurs when a child inherits one defective copy of the gene from each parent. This gene mutation is responsible for cystic fibrosis. ("Cystic fibrosis Canada," 2011) This gene is known as the CFTR gene ("www.medincinet.com," 1996). Reference Figure 3. The “gene makes a protein that controls the movement of salt and water in and out of your body's cells. In people who have cystic fibrosis, the gene makes a protein that doesn't work right. This causes the thick, sticky mucus” ("www.medincinet.com," 1996).
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the airways and tissues of the lungs gradually become damaged over time, causing
Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to explain what Cystic Fibrosis is and also to explain what
Emphysema is a condition of the lungs that involves the over-inflation of the air sacs, otherwise known as the alveoli. Normal functioning of the alveoli helps breathing in normal respiration. Unlike other lung diseases this one can be inherited. This is a disease that can affect people of all ages and genders. In 1994, the number of males with emphysema outnumbered the females by fifty four percent. However, in the two years that followed the difference between males and females decreased by ten percent.
Cystic Fibrosis is a disease that affects the body in many ways throughout the patient's life. Newborns with Cystic Fibrosis may experience delayed growth, inability to gain weight, and salty-tasting skin ("Cystic," umm.edu 1). Older patients may be infertile, have recurring pancreatitis, and respiratory problems ("Cystic," umm.edu 2). Considering that these are just symptoms involving age, the full spectrum of ailments that afflict a patient with Cystic Fibrosis is far more taxing on a patient.
While obstructive and restrictive respiratory diseases both present with the same main symptom of a shortness of breath with physical exertion (David Ebner, 2016), they are mechanically different. An obstructive lung disease encompasses the respiratory conditions where, after a full exhalation, a significant amount of air remains in the lungs. This remaining air cannot be exhaled owning to narrowed pulmonary airways (The Lung Institute, 2016). Common obstructive lung diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Harpreet Ranu et al., 2011). A restrictive lung disease, however, describes conditions where the total lung capacity is abnormally low (Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP et al., 2016). Pulmonary fibrosis (the diagnosis of RL) is a common example of a restrictive lung disease (Harpreet Ranu et al., 2011).
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive gene that causes a wide range of symptoms because there are over 1,000 changes or mutations that can occur within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR) protein. The CFTR protein is generally a chloride ion chain “regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate and therefore can act as a regulator of other electrolyte channels”(Grossman, S., & Grossman, L. 2005, p. 46). Typically this protein allows chloride ions to exit mucus-producing cells allowing water to flow in and thin the mucus. However, if the CFTR protein has been mutated, such as in cystic fibrosis, chloride ions cannot exit. This causes the mucus to thicken, become sticky, and obstruct the various channels it passes through. This build up of mucus also prevents bacteria from being cleaned from cells thoroughly increasing the patients risk for infections (Grossman, S., & Grossman, L. 2005). However, the severity of CF depends on whether the patients have complete or partial loss of the CFTR gene. If the person has the classic form of CF abnormalities of CFTR will commonly affect “…the respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and metabolic, and genitourinary systems”(Schram, C. 2012). However, if people have atypical forms of CF their genetic disorder may only affect one of the organ systems and may not be found until the patient develops symptoms in their late childhood, early adolescence, or adulthood
Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a genetic defect in Chromosome 7. Chromosome 7 encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, also known as CFTR. There are over 1,000 mutations of this gene causing cystic fibrosis, with each mutation manifesting as a different variation of disease onset and clinical presentation. The most common mutation is the loss of phenylalanine residue at deltaF508. The abnormal functioning CFTR causes impaired chloride transport and more viscous secretions. The defect causes dehydrated secretions in the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Being dehydrated, these secretions become more difficult to move throughout the body. Along with impaired
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a very devistating diagnosis that is associated with scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, making breathing a difficult task for patients (Bridges et al., 2014). Without a known cause, IPF progessively affects a patient’s lung fuction presenting as dyspnea, cough, and fatigue (Yount et al., 2016). This disease robs individuals of their quality of life, and their lifespan. Accoriding to (Bridges et al., 2014), an average lifespan of a patient after diagnosis is approximately three to five years. These patients lack independece in their normal everyday activities, their physical functioning declines, along with their respiratory function. Relief is sought through limited available interventions that