This paper presents the international community’s efforts to eliminate the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Egypt. The procedure is perceived as a violation of basic human rights and as such, efforts have been made to raise awareness to its damages, illegalize it and to create successful interventions to eliminate it (Shell-Duncan, 2008). The paper focuses on the issue of FGM in Egypt since Egypt shows a high rate of women having gone through the procedure (Boyle, Songora & Foss, 2001). As the risk factors and the possible issues are identified, a locally based solution is suggested as an appropriate and effective intervention. The case of Egypt points out a controversial issue of cultural values vs. universal values and the…show more content… The first identified risk factor is health, due to the many health implications (depending on the level of circumcision): death due to complications (such as unsanitary conditions and blood poisoning from use of animal excreta and dirt to stop bleeding), severe pain, urine and menstrual retention, hemorrhaging, fever, shock, urinary track infections, chronic pelvic infections, stones in the urethra or bladder, fistulae, malformations, cysts, obstructed labor, painful intercourse, lack of orgasm (Lundquist, 2004). Psychological effects of the procedure include eating disorders, sleeping disorders, and mood and cognition disorders (Lundquist, 2004). Many women experience fear, submission, and inhabitation and suppressed feelings of anger, bitterness and betrayal (Lundquist, 2004). FGM is done without any notice to the girl or preparation of any kind, and is followed by tying of the legs together and a week of being bed ridden (Lundquist, 2004). Even though there is not enough data as to the psychological effects of the procedure, there is no doubt to its traumatic impact (Lundquist, 2004).
Another problem is social survival, since FGM is rooted deep into the patriarchal culture in Egypt and has become a social requirement for