Summary of the Civil War

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Summary of the Civil War:
Fought 1861-1865, the American Civil War was the result of decades of sectional tensions between the North and South. Focused on slavery and states rights, these issues came to a head following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Over the next several months eleven southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. During the first two years of the war, Southern troops won numerous victories but saw their fortunes turn after losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863. From then on, Northern forces worked to conqueror the South, forcing them to surrender in April 1865.
Causes & Secession:
The roots of the Civil War can be traced to increasing differences between North and South and
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Lee began to move north into Maryland. McClellan was sent to intercept and met Lee at Antietam.
Despite having a larger force and knowledge of Lee 's positions, McClellan was overcautious and failed to achieve a decisive victory. The win at Antietam permitted Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves in the South and altered the Union 's war aims. Union engaged Lee near Chancellorsville. Though outnumbered 2-to-1, Lee outmaneuvered them and forced them to retreat.
War in the West, 1861-1863:
In February 1862, forces under Gen. Grant captured Forts Henry & Donelson. Two months later he defeated a Confederate army at Shiloh. Union naval forces captured New Orleans. To the east, Confederate attempted to invade Kentucky, but was repelled at Perryville. He was beaten again at Stones River. Grant now focused his attention on capturing Vicksburg and opening the Mississippi River. After a false start, his troops swept through Mississippi and laid siege to the town in1863.
Turning Points - Gettysburg & Vicksburg:
1863, Lee began to move north towards Pennsylvania with Union troops in pursuit. Following the defeat at Chancellorsville, Lincoln turned to Gen. George Meade to take over the Army of the Potomac. Elements of the two armies clashed at Gettysburg. After three days of heavy fighting, Lee was defeated and forced to retreat. Grant successfully concluded the siege of Vicksburg, opening the Mississippi to shipping and cutting

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