The Beginnings Of Intellectual Property Rights

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Beginnings of Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual property rights will remain a part of international trade agreements in the future, but the global activity will likely be characterized by varying standards and improved enforcement, reflecting evolution in social, cultural and political attitudes, and a deeper understanding of the relationships among innovation, creation and the more efficient distribution of intellectual property. Increased cooperation might occur at the governance level. Many of the fast and unprecedented changes in intellectual property law and policy over the past two decades are due to their intersection with international trade and the numerous international trade agreements negotiated and brought into force …show more content…

Underlying this activity are changes to intellectual property rights laws and policies. The following are the major enforcement inadequacies in the protection of intellectual property rights: No preliminary or final injunctive relief, lack of seizure and impoundment relief, lack of exclusion of infringing imports, lack of compulsory court process and/or discovery, inadequate civil remedies, usually in monetary dam ages, limits on recoveries preclude deterrent effects, fine or other criminal penalties inadequate, unreasonably slow enforcement process during which illegal activity continues, enforcement officials systematically discriminate against foreigners, training and resources for enforcement inadequate, court decisions biased or political, and corruption. The efforts to protect intellectual property rights suffer from three major problems: institutional issues, philosophical issues, and handling of new technologies. The institutional issues refer to the shortcomings of existing regimes and their enforcement. To begin with, the signatories to specific agreements are limited. Thus, countries that are not a part of the agreement do not have to subscribe to its provisions. Further, the agreements lack enforcement powers. In addition, the agreements per se are limited

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