There are many different experiments which can give varying intelligence about the makeup of matter, in different ways and with different conclusions. In this instance I will be looking at the discovery of the electron, how our understanding of it has changed over the years, and measure how it has contributed to where we are today.
Joseph John Thomson (J. J. Thomson, 1856 - 1940) is widely recognized as the discoverer of the electron. Thomson was a Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge University, and Director of its Cavendish Laboratory, from 1884 until 1919. It is here where his most well-known, varied and comprehensive work, in the field of conduction of electricity within gases, was undertaken. In 1897 Thompson made an …show more content…
Despite this, it did not signify that the discharge had stopped, as there would still be current flowing between the electrodes, and these are what Thompson referred to as cathode rays.
J. J. Thomson presumed that the cathode rays which emanated from the negative electrode were a collection of particles possessing negative charges. If a negative electric potential were applied to the upper plate, and the lower plate was positive, then the cathode ray beam would curve downwards and the spot visible on the screen would also move downward. Thomson recorded this, and also noted that the spot neither spread significantly, nor faded. This demonstrated that Thompson’s conclusions were correct, and cathode rays comprise a beam of like "particles" with a negative charge.
It has transpired that the electron is not quite what Thomson concluded, as it is incorrect to believe that electrons are either particles or waves, but cannot be both. Under some circumstances electrons behave like particles, while under other conditions they act as waves. Subsequently, much has been learnt about the characteristics of electrons from the work of other scientists. However, Thomson's first painstaking experiments and adventurous hypotheses were substantiated by crucial experimental and theoretical work. From this was derived the computers and T.V. we now generally encounter in society: they are direct descendants from the cathode ray tube on which Thompson
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
One of J.J. Thomson's most significant contributions to science, and thus to the study of atomic theory, was his discovery of the electron. Before the discovery of the electron, the atom was already associated with having electric charges-both positive and negative-but the idea of an electron existing as its own particle was unheard of. It was in 1897 when Thomson first conducted the beginning of his now famous experiment, in which he used a cathode ray tube to aid in his findings. A cathode ray tube, is a vacuum tube in which cathode rays, negatively charged particles, are produced at the cathode and travel through the vacuum, which is created when gas is extracted from the tube. J.J. Thomson discovered that in order to determine
* The battery applies a voltage to the plates, charging one plate positive and the other plate negative. Alpha particles constantly released by the americium knock electrons off of the atoms in the air, ionizing the oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the chamber. The positively-charged oxygen and nitrogen atoms are attracted to the negative plate and the electrons are attracted to the
In paragraph eleven of "Energy Story" it explains how electrons can work. The author states "Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another." and continues to "When
- I think that the electrons that are emitted from the cathode are emitted with a range of velocities (perhaps like a Boltzmann distribution where average speed clusters in the middle of the range).
Today we know the electrical fluid to be electrons. Franklin was the first to write that electric charge and be collected not created. The law of Conservation of Electric Charge means that you can neither create nor destroy electric charge. In 1752, his most famous works were brought out such as proof that lightning is electricity. In 1753, Franklin received the Copley Medal from Britain’s Royal Society, which was the equivalent of a modern Nobel Prize. Franklin also invented the lightning rod, which we still use today, it has saved countless lives. He and John Hadley investigated the refrigeration principle. Because of this, we now know the reason of the refrigeration
Thomson discovered the electron. He used a cathode ray tube (an electron gun) with a magnet and discovered that the green beam it emitted was made up of negatively charged particles. Thomson then determined that these negatively charged electrons needed something positive to balance them out. (Born, 2014)
X-rays were discovered by accident in 1895 by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. Roentgen was already an accomplished scientist with forty-eight published papers. He had a reputation among the scientific community as a dedicated scientist with precise experimental methods. Roentgen had been conducting experiments at the University of Wurzburg on the effect of cathode-rays on the luminescence of certain chemicals. Roentgen had placed a cathode-ray tube, which is a partially evacuated glass tube with metal electrodes at each end, in a black cardboard box in his darkened laboratory. He sent electricity through the cathodre-ray tube and noticed something strange his laboratory. He saw a flash of light
Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand born British physicist who is famously known for “splitting the atom.” His work on the gold foil experiment contributed greatly to the model of the atom and helped develop the standard model of the atom to what we now use today. Without his contributions we would still be using the Plum Pudding model, an out dated and incorrect model, and we would have less of an understanding of how atoms form the world around us.
In 1752 Franklin devised another experiment to test if lighting has an electrical charge. He flied a kite carrying a pointed wire in a thunderstorm and attempted to test his theory that atmospheric lightning is an electrical phenomenon similar to the spark produced by an electrical frictional machine (Bruno 406). To
After that theory scientists started Wondering about this theory and a lot of Scientists made up Models and conducted Experiments to Explain this Theory. In this report we will put our self’s inside Each scientist’s Shoe and see What has he discovered.
Nikola Tesla is regarded as one of the most brilliant inventors in history. His work provided the basis for the modern alternating current power system, as well as having developed both radio and the fluorescent light bulb. He worked with Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse, among others. He was also widely misunderstood by his peers and the public at large.
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was an inventor and is responsible for the world as we know it. He developed alternating current, the Tesla coil, and wireless connectivity. Today he is regarded as one of the most important geniuses in history, but while he was alive, his ideas were largely unsupported.
The electron microscope has become one of the most widely utilized instruments for materials characterization. An electron microscope is a scientific instrument that allows us to “see” objects so small that they cannot be seen in any other way. (CITE) Electron microscopes have allowed scientists to see individual molecules and atoms for the first time.