This study detected the effects of maternal carbamazepine (CBZ) on the fetal neuroendocrine-cytokines axis. 25 or 50 mg/kg of CBZ was intraperitoneally administrated from gestation day (GD) 1 to 20. Compared to control, these treatments elicited a pronounced hypothyroidism at GD 20 with a decrease in the maternofetal thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and an increase in the maternofetal thyrotropin (TSH) level. This resulted in a significant reduction in the fetal serum growth hormone (GH), interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukins (IL-2 & 4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, and elevation in the fetal serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ), and interleukins (IL-1β & 17) levels at embryonic day (ED) 20 with effective dosage dependent manners. In both treated groups, the cellular fragmentations, distortions, hyperemia, and vacuolation were observed in their cerebellum. Finally, the maternofetal hypothyroidism by CBZ might cue the developmental violation of the neuroendocrine-cytokines axis.
Keywords: Carbamazepine, Thyroid hormones, Cytokines, Cerebellum, Fetus, Pregnant rats
Thyroid hormones (THs) are principal for the development of all biological tissues (Ahmed, 2016a,b; Campo Verde Arboccó et al., 2016; Raymaekers et al., 2016; Zevenbergen et al., 2016). Several investigations have displayed that exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) might disturb the growth (Liguori and Cianfarani, 2009; Farmen et al.,