The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for safe exposure level to mercury are one-tenth of a microgram (mcg) per kilogram of body weight. Children received about 237 mcg of Thimerosal by two years old with the first 200 mcg administered before six months old. Thimerosal is an ethylmercury preservative (about 49.6 percent mercury by weight) used in vaccines to add shelf life to the vaccine. Thimerosal is about 50 times more toxic due to it being injected, there is no blood–brain barrier in infants, mercury clings to brain cells and nerves, and infants do not create bile therefore the mercury cannot be excreted. PDD-NOS are the largest group and are characterized by four other different disorders. The four disorders
Copper is a very important trace element to the overall health of many living organisms. For example, humans, Plants, and animals. It is key to the function of organs and metabolic pathways. Copper is also required in enzyme systems that oversee multiple metabolic processes required in the day to day life. In the body enzymes are needed in the cellular movement of cell regulations along with signal transductions.
McKenna Moore’s article, “High Lead Poisoning Rates Among Children in Syracuse”, focuses on how the poor people of color residing in Syracuse, New York are affected by lead poisoning. The article mentions a study published in the Journal of Pediatrics, that states that around 3% of children are diagnosed with lead poisoning nationally. However, in Onondaga County, New York, where Syracuse is located, around 6% of the children who were tested have elevated blood lead levels. In Syracuse alone, around 12% of the children tested had elevated blood lead levels. While lead poisoning can affect anyone, regardless of color or socioeconomic status, poor people of color are more likely to be affected. According to data gathered by The Century Foundation, the highest concentration of poverty in Syracuse is amongst black people and Hispanics. This makes them the most vulnerable to being exposed to lead in
Write a brief description of your project that starts by stating your clinical question and succinctly explaining your planned intervention in order to orient everyone.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry says that lead exposure in children may cause comas, seizures, and death. Because a child’s brain is still developing, the damage of lead exposure is more severe. Not only does lead affect the way the brain physically develops, but lasting neurological and behavioral damage includes lower IQ scores, higher risk of attention deficit disorders and hearing impairments, decreases in impulse control, and potentially violent behavior. Mona Hanna-Attisha, a pediatrician who runs the pediatric medical residency program at Flint’s Hurley Medical Center, studied blood lead level tests and found that the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels had gone from 2.4 percent to 4.9 percent citywide (Barry-Jester). Hanna-Attisha’s findings showed a rise to sixteen percent in neighborhoods where lead levels were known to be elevated in the water. She points out, "Lead only last in body a short time … and when you screen them, it's no longer elevated. So we've missed children's peak lead levels and that's why everyone says it
Lead poisoning in children was first discovered in 1890 in Queensland, Australia. The lead source was not identified until 1904, when a researcher traced it to the paint used on railings and verandahs. The first discovery of lead poisoning in the United States (with a traceable source) was in 1914; the child had chewed the paint off of his crib. At this time they linked lead poisoning as a cause of convulsions in children. As research progressed and more children were found with high lead levels, symptoms caused by lead were expanded to include lead meningitis, acute encephalopathy, intellectual dullness, reduced consciousness, seizures, comas, and death (Chisholm, 1982).
* It can cause serious harmful problems effects on the body including: hearing, anemia, peripheral neuropathies, wrist/foot drop, encephalopathy, seizures, coma, and even death. It can also cause children to have lower IQ scores and behavioral issues.
The outcome of my project was 106 soccer balls. Although, the grandiose outcome for me is giving these balls to people who could receive joy and benefit from them. To develop to the point of reaching an outcome, I needed to execute the plan that I created. I constructed an informational flyer and handed it out to as many people as I could. This impacted the social skills I used during my project, because this was one of the vital parts. With the flyer in hand, I had to actually "talk" to people! This forced me to communicate personally with my community and helped me further develop personal social skills. Once I got the word out, I had a collection day/drive. I had one vast contributor who gave me soccer balls, which helped me a lot. Before
Since the ban of lead based paint in residential homes, gasoline, and plumbing materials in 1978, numerous preventative measures have been put in place to protect children in the United States from exposure to high amounts of lead (Levin et al., 2008). As researchers and health care providers bring to light the many adverse health effects associated with chronic lead exposure, recent data suggests that there is no safe amount of lead a child can be exposed to. Yet while the regulations imposed have been significantly effective, elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) among U.S. children remain high. This literature review analyses whether lead poisoning is still a predominant threat to U.S. children by addressing the following
Some lead particles move from soil into ground water and this depending on the characteristics of the soil and the type of lead compound.
In Chapter 8 several different elemnts caught my attention, but the one topic that stood out amongs them all for me was the biology and envronment section dedicated to low level lead exposure. Lead exposure is one of the most common poisonings of childhood. Due to its highly toxic elements lead exposure can effects the developing bodies of children at any age.
Copper: Electroplating and metalworking industries discharge large amounts of heavy metals, including copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) ions, in their effluents [Ting-Chu et al. 2009]. Environmental contamination due to copper is caused by mining, printed circuits, metallurgical, fiber production, pipe corrosion and metal plating industries. The other major industries discharging copper in their effluents are paper and pulp, petroleum refining and wood preserving. Agricultural sources such as fertilizers, fungicidal sprays and animal wastes also lead to water pollution due to copper. Copper may be found as a contaminant in food, especially shell fish, liver, mushrooms, nuts and chocolates. Any packaging container using copper material may contaminate
An important issue in my research is how am I going to go about it?
Dr. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson was a British neurologist who first described a pathological change of the brain and liver in 1912. Wilson's work was based off of different reports and studies from many studies including a German neurologist by the name of Dr Carl Westphal in 1883, who termed these changes "pseudosclerosis", by a British neurologist named Sir William Gowers in 1888, who similarly identified the combination of neurologic and liver disease (Rosencrantz and Schilsky, 2011, pg. 246) and by Dr Adolph Strümpell in 1898, who noted hepatic cirrhosis. In 1948, a professor by the name John N. Cumings made the link with copper accumulation in both the liver and the brain (News-Medical, 2014). Copper is an essential trace