The Effects Of Climate Change On Marine Ecosystems

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Marine ecosystems are highly complex, diverse and delicate biological networks. Even small changes might have big consequences due to positive feedback chains. Many recent changes are caused by climate change. Set in motion by the industrial revolution in the 19th Century levels of CO2 have been constantly rising and so have global temperatures, sea level and ocean temperatures. In this essay I will talk about several impacts of climate change in marine ecosystems such as rising sea temperature, changing sea levels, decrease of sea-ice, changes in salinity, different water pH, increased appearance of harmful algal blooms and deterioration of marine ecosystems1.
In the last 40 years ocean temperatures have been rising constantly. The vast masses of water store high amounts of excess heat energy (~93%) and in the past 40 years the temperatures up to a depth of 700m rose up to 0.44°C in the first 75m and about 0.06°C in 700m depth. There is data from expeditions dating back to the 1870s that show observable changes in ocean temperature since then. Once of the most important aspects about increasing surface temperature of the oceans is the consequences warmer water has for floating sea ice.2In general, the amount of sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic has decreased dramatically. It is said that within the twenty-first century there will be sea ice free summers in the Arctic. The melting of sea ice causes sea levels to rise, currently with a rate of about 3mm every year,
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