This report is an academic critique of a Quantitative research article written by Mark Anthony Peters and Leadelle Phelps (2001) entitled: ‘Body Image dissatisfaction and distortion, steroid use, and sex differences in college age bodybuilders.’ Under the section ‘Steroid use’ it is made fairly clear towards the end of the paragraph that the main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of gender and steroid use on body image dissatisfaction and distortion among college age bodybuilders. Based on my interpretation and overall understanding of Quantitative research, I will evaluate/critique this article with professionalism and discipline.
Introduction As stated in the abstract above the title of this piece is ‘Body Image dissatisfaction and distortion, steroid use, and sex differences in college age bodybuilders’. The main aim of this research was to ‘evaluate the effects of gender and steroid use on the body image dissatisfaction and distortion among college age bodybuilders’. Furthermore, in order to clarify differentiation between the two genders, two research questions were used. The first one being – What effect do gender (male or female) and steroid consumption status (non-use or use) have on body dissatisfaction and the second question being, what effect do gender (male or female) and steroid consumption status (non-use or use) have on body distortion. Both of the problem statements coincide with the title and seem to be of educational significance
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Many of these individuals, also face the challenges of these pointless standards. Lorber states, “These differences are socially meaningless until social practices transform them into social facts.” Lorber is talking mostly about the standards set on gender in today’s society. Any gendered person is as equal as another, until society decides that they are not. Humans, especially weightlifters, are always trying to fit in with society's standards. Weightlifting men ”grew up idolizing Arnold [Schwarzenegger, former body champion and Governor of California]” Arnold set the standards to many of these modern day steroid users. These social standards, seem to be a major factor in the steroid use by middle aged men. These steroid users, are abusing their bodies to get a feeling of self accomplishment by society’s
Steroids can affect an athlete’s physical health. Developing breasts from steroid use is very common. Breasts develop because when high doses of steroids are used for prolonged periods, they shut down certain hormones such as testosterone. Studies show that estrogen is what causes breast tissue growth; progesterone needs to be available in order to keep breast size down. Shrunken testicles can also occur because when a person uses steroids, they introduce a new hormone from outside their body at higher levels than their body can produce. The body signals itself to slow down making its own hormones because there is already enough to make the body operate correctly. This leads to smaller testicles while on a steroid cycle. Along with testicles getting smaller, your sperm count can be dropped a long way! This is called oligospermia. “Your sperm count is considered lower than normal if you have fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen.”(Myoclonic)Low sperm count lowers the chance of him being fertile enough to get a girl pregnant. Most men will recover their sperm production 3 to 12 months after they stop taking steroids. If you have taken steroids for more than two weeks, even if you then stop, your body may have a decremented ability to respond to physical stress - because your adrenal glands may not react as they should customarily. This effect can last as long as a year after steroid discontinuation. If you have a surgical procedure, develop an incipient solemn
One of the most-treasured items a person can have is their health. Consequently, a great deal of money is spent on healthcare on account of people want to be healthy to do the things they enjoy in life. In the article “Steroid Abuse in Today’s Society,” states “There is increasing concern regarding possible serious health problems that are associated with the abuse of steroids, including both short-term and long-term side effects.” ("Steroid Abuse in Today's Society" 3). Unfortunately, there are side effects that will accompany someone who takes steroids. For women and men, steroids can cause masculinizing effects. These symptoms can cause fertility problems in both genders. Fortunately, by stopping the use of drugs can cause a shift in changing men’s health for the better, but for women the symptoms may never go away. Studies have not concluded the long-term effects of steroids, but in the worst cases, death can occur. Performance enhancement drugs are dangerous to an athlete’s
Steroids is abused by a range of athletes and students. “In a 2002 National Institute of Drug Abuse study, 2.5% of 8th graders, 2.5% of 10th graders, and 4% of 12th graders admitted to using steroids at some time.” (Steroid Abuse Moves Into the Scholastic Arena, 2008) Steroids abuse is not only found in athletes but also those who struggle with body image.
Unfortunately, the use of steroids can easily lead to many major health problems. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse “Steroids abuse may lead to serious, even irreversible, health problems. Some of the most dangerous consequences…kidney impairment or failure; damage to the liver; and cardiovascular problems…leading to an increased risk of stroke and heart attack (even in young people)” (NIH). Steroids can affect an athlete by increasing the heart rate and decreasing the stamina, a fact that can lead to heart failure. Steroids can also affect the body with acne, abdominal pains, insomnia, and anaphylactic shock. When men use steroids the consequences are more crucial than women. For example, men may experience falling sperm count, shrinking testicles, and increased risk of fertility. On the other hand, women may show signs of masculinity (male type musculature) but also an increased risk of certain illnesses such as breast cancer. In general, steroids affect both of women and men by leading to terrible health problems. Dr. Larry Creswell, a well-known heart surgeon who studied the abuse of steroids, estimates that approximately 3 million Americans use steroids and he supports that the 70% of the athletes in the bodybuilding area, are steroid users. In addition, it is well known that steroids can also cause sudden deaths, sometimes in young athletes but most often occur within the ages of 35-50. In addition, Dr. Dickerman, a professor in the department of
However, the results and current statistical information cannot be determined. Why is this? Muscle dysmorphia is under diagnosed by physicians and psychiatrists. This is primarily due to the individual being unwilling to disclose the symptoms that they have. Furthermore, the only statistics that are available for muscle dysmorphia suggest that more research needs to be conducted in order to obtain accurate statistics on the matter. Nancy Clark (2004) wrote in a magazine article that Roberto Olivardia reported conducting a study consisting of 3,400 male seniors. Clark wrote that Olivardia reported that 6.6 percent of those 3,400 males had used steroids (p. 54). The ideal of the male mind set is that if you are bigger, you are better. Olivardia also stated in Clark’s article that “Men will tell someone they use cocaine before that admit to using “juice”.” Therefore, the statistical information for individuals that suffer from muscle dysmorphia is lacking. More importantly, what body systems are affected by this
To address this issue the researchers evaluated three groups of male weight lifters. Men with no history of steroid use, non-dependence of steroid use and men who meet DSM IV criteria for steroid dependence. Participants lifestyles and demographic were analyzed and it was found that nondependent steroid users showed no significant differences from AAS nonusers on any variables assed. Dependent users did show a frequent history of conduct disorder. From the research, it was concluded that Men with AAS dependence, unlike nondependent AAS users or AAS nonusers, showed a distinctive pattern of comorbid psychopathology, overlapping with that of individuals with other form of substance dependence. The strength of the article is the descriptive details throughout the study. Due to the population that the article addresses this article is unique. The relevance to the field of psychology is understanding the impact of dependence steroids have on the user. Aggression, strength and size are often welcome effects of steroids, what people don’t know is the unwelcome side effects such as depression, decreased libido, increased risks of heart attacks. Understanding the effects of steroid might help researchers understand the cognitive side of steroids in the user.
Typically a girl is under pressure to lose weight and become thinner, while a boy is under pressure to gain the weight and be more buff and muscular. Another study has revealed that the behavior of muscle-enhancing is more often happening between the boys in middle and high school. The need to look that specific way causes adolescent boys to consume a high unhealthy number of powder protein, steroids, and other muscle-enhancing substances. Just like the need to look that way, the consummation of muscle-enhancers have negative effects; such as anger and rage attacks, suicidal tendencies, depression, and heart problems. In a survey, it has been revealed that about 20% of men and over 40% of women would consider having cosmetic surgery in the
Ever see those people on television or the internet and think that you want to be just like them because of how big and muscular they are, well not all of them you want to be like. Body builders or even some professional athletes are not honest about how they really got so big and strong. The case behind this is due the widely known illegal drug known as steroids. Steroids have been used by a enormous group of people throughout the century and have brought along with them huge and devastating problems. The reason for these major problems that comes along with the use of steroids are that users will take advantage and abuse these drugs. Due to such negative effects that steroids bring and the addictions, the
Throughout many generations as well as the present day, bodybuilding has been a much favored sport in the fitness industry. The question first begins with what a sport is determined to be. The definition seems to be: “a human activity capable of achieving a result requiring physical exertion and skill, which by nature, is competitive” (Kennedy 121). Conceivably, bodybuilding fits the definition; However, the primary problem that bodybuilders, the industry, and just the name, bodybuilding, in general face are the numerous controversial issues about the usage of anabolic drugs commonly referred to as steroids. The FDA has banned any and all steroids, causing them to be illegal; Yet, in
The video presented opened my eyes to the effects steroids has on the body and the effect society has on steroids. Before watching this video, I had assumed steroids were a “bad” synthetic drug. Though in reality, it’s a synthetic testosterone and if administered properly it can be used in a healthy manner. Physicians prescribe it for male patients who cannot produce testosterone, or to treat muscle loss, anemia, stunted growth and delayed puberty (CITE). However, most people using steroids do not have an issue producing testosterone, nor any other clinical reason. These people have recognized that steroids are able to enhance their physical performance –strength, speed and enlarged muscles. Unfortunately, those using this substance are putting
(2005) found with the questionnaire that body dissatisfaction was higher among non-athletes than with athletes. Schwarz, C., Gairrett, L., Aruguete, S., and Gold, S. (2005) research also suggested that athletes in judged sports, ex: diving or dancing, had a higher score in dieting than athletes in refereed sports. Finally, “we found a positive correlation between perfectionism and dieting, and perfectionism and bulimia.” (Schwarz, C., Gairrett, L., Aruguete, S., and Gold, S., 2005,
Look at advertisements for sports equipment. Generally, either a muscular man or skinny woman is using the equipment. These skewed images of athletic people extend beyond the sports realm. In an article titled “Drugs, Sports, Body Image and G.I. Joe,” Natalie Angier explains the influence of G.I. Joe dolls on young American boys, giving them a false image of masculine muscularity: “[G.I. Joe Extreme’s] bulge so much that they are larger around than his waist, and, if ratcheted up to human size, they would be larger than even the arms of the grotesquely muscular Mr. Olympias” (Angier). Young teenagers trying to emulate these toys will take steroids and supplements, many of which are more effective at causing side-effects than actual muscle gain: “The use of anabolic steroids lowers the levels of protective high-density lipoproteins, suppresses sperm production and raises the risk of heart attacks, strokes and liver disease” (Angier). Young men are influenced from all angles into thinking more muscle is manlier, no matter the health
It seems that the media’s portrayal of women has negatively affected the body image of The Wykeham Collegiate senior school girls. The media has a negative effect on the youth of today, primarily amongst the female population when it comes to how young girls and women regard
Throughout the United State and across the globe more females then males are affected by body dissatisfaction that leads to serious problems such as eating disorders and other unhealthy methods of body change. Due to this there is much more information available on female body dissatisfaction and the problems associated with it then there are for males. Though male body dissatisfaction and body image is not as often talked about, it still an important topic that should be discussed. It is important to clear up misconceptions that body dissatisfaction is a female only problem. In a study by Furnham and Calnan (1998) they discussed the fact that about half of males would like to gain weight while the other half would like to lose weight. While