The Evolution of Human Speech: Anatomical Aspect
As human we can communicate via our speaking ability to express our feelings, as a way to deliver the message we want to others. These articles that I read discuss the anatomical prerequisite for humans to gain the ability to speak such as the absent and present of the air sac in hominids. Morphological changes of the face structure such as the descent of the larynx. The controversial hypothesis of the hypoglossal canal sizes is indicative of speech, which assumed modern humans have a larger hypoglossal canal size compare to other hominids. These papers only focus on the anatomical aspects of the possible contribution to the human speech.
The first paper was the study done by Bart de Boer …show more content…
The choices produce through the tubes were (a & e) (a & y), and a “don’t know” choice. Please refer to figure 3 on page for 3 a depiction of the tubes.
The data were collected and used to construct a boxplot on figure 4. The measurement of the signal to noise ratio of both options a/e and a/y were shown in the figures. Boxplots for without air sacs are significantly lower in signal to ratio and the condition with air sacs tolerates less noise (de Boer 2012). There data for both options a/e and a/y were plotted into a boxplot but there is no mention of the “don’t know” choice, therefore not sure how the author deal with that option, perhaps it was eliminated. de Boer 2012 concluded in this paper that the lower frequencies of the sound and the communication that is successful for participants to understand is the one that able to produce a more distinctive signals. Also having an air sac siting in the vocal tract result in a blockage of the clear communication Further noted in this experiment that the participants were more comfortable the without air sacs acoustic than with air sacs due to humans possessed no air sacs.
The second paper, “The Descent of the hyoid in chimpanzees: evolution of face flattening and speech” talked about the ratio of the supralaryngeal vocal tract: vertical and horizontal (SVTv) and (SVTH). Modern humans have a 1:1 ratio. Nishimura et.al. (2006) stated that the mechanism for speech to occur requires lungs
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The Harmonics-to-Noise (HNR) ratio is a measure of the proportion of harmonic sound to noise in the voice measured in decibels. (Ferrand, 2007). HNR quantifies the relative amount of additive noise (Awen & Frankel, 1994) The lower the HNR, the more noise in the voice. Laryngeal pathology may lead to poor adduction of the vocal folds and, therefore, increase the amount of random noise in the vocal note. If a person has some kind of problem in vibrating the vocal folds, due to a growth, paralysis of one or both vocal folds, or other kind of laryngeal problem, a larger amount of air escapes during vibration, creating turbulent noise. (Pabon & Plomp, 1988) The greater the proportion of noise, the greater the perceived hoarseness, breathiness or roughness and the lower the HNR figure will be, i.e. a low HNR indicates a high level of hoarseness, and a high HNR indicates a low level of hoarseness. There is a strong relationship between how we perceive voice quality and the harmonic to noise ratio (Ferrand, 2007).
This study includes the results from the three participants, Mathew, Mark and Luke. The figures will be represented by the X- axis, which will show the sessions, and the Y-axis, which will display the number of times the participant engaged in the vocal stereotypy during the sessions. All data from the IOA agreement was calculated for 25% of each participant and will be included within the recoding. The ESE teacher was the second observer and was trained in all aspects of the study to assist with procedural fidelity. Social validity was taken into consideration by the results rendered from the parent’s observation and recordings.
Neanderthals share many biological similarities to that of modern day humans, giving rise to the idea of a Neanderthal humanity. One similarity was shown in a recent article published in 2013 on a scientific study done on the Neanderthal hyoid bone called the Kebra 2 hyoid which was found in 1898 in the Kebra caves. The article is called Micro-Biomechanics of the Kebra 2 Hyoid and Its Implications for Speech in Neanderthals. The study involved using a range of computational techniques to examine the mechanical nature and differences between the Neanderthal hyoid and human hyoid bones. The results from the study found, examining the macroscopic anatomy of the Kebra 2 hyoid that it was virtually identical to that of a human’s hyoid bone. Many
Robert McCarthy’s reconstructed vocal tract. The basicranium is a technical term referring to the base of the skull that is necessary for speech production. The basicranium can tell us quite a bit about the position of the larynx in the vocal tract. In the recent La Chappelle cranium reconstruction of H. neandertal the cranial base angle is at 137.5°, which fits into the range of modern human variation (Mahathey). A fully arched basicranium would suggest that the H. neandertal vocal tract is anatomically modern and that they would have the full range of vowels needed to speak a modern language. This is because the basicranium flexion allows the larynx the space to emit and modify sounds(Ash and Robinson, 2011).
Knowing how our voice is produced can help us better communicate. Central Idea: According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology, knowing how we make sound is useful in maintaining the health and effectiveness of our voice. Credibility: In preparation for the speech,
“Statistical analysis was applied to groups of vocal tract estimates from different vocalizations, and a significant difference was found between the groups. When compared with human data the results indicated that there could possibly be three speakers, one of, which is nonhuman. The average vocal tract length was found to be 20.2 cm. This significantly longer than for a normal human male.
Neandertals are similar to humans across most of the genome. They are about as similar as two humans are to each other. However, in some parts of the Neandertal genome Neandertals had more in common with chimpanzees than with humans. This shows that humans went through many changes to make them different than chimps. According to Svante Paabo, Neandertals contributed very little to the genetic makeup of modern humans. Researchers think that people who are lactose-intolerant may have inherited this gene from the Neandertals. FOXP2 gene is the gene that is associated with speech in humans. Researchers found that it was also a gene in Neandertals. This could mean that Neandertals could speak. Humans and chimps are only 1% different.
(222). The occurence of this modern cranial capacity with other archaic traits in specimens consistent with a limited geographical setting suggests a local transition from primitive to more modern traits, as would be expected from the multi-regional continuity model of human evolution.
The pharyngeal slits for filtering system food developed right into gills for drawing out oxygen, as well as later on right into today’s human top and also reduced mouth and also vocal cords, which incorporates the thyroid glandular, tongue, larynx (voice box) and also different glandulars as well as muscle mass in between the throat and also the mouth.
This developed as a consequence of the midfacial prognathism, or the projection of the mandible, being present. Another trait that is unique to humans, even though few neanderthals possessed it is the presence of a chin.
This article focuses on the hyoid bone of a Neanderthal that was found in the Kebara cave located in Israel. A hyoid bone is a u-shaped bone which is located in the neck and helps supports the tongue. The hyoid certainly plays a dynamic role in speech and is a sign of the vocal tract. This hyoid bone found in 1989 heated up a scientific debate on the evolution of speech and complex language. According to the article “The mechanical performance of whole bones is partly controlled by internal trabecular geometries, regulated by bone-remodelling in response to the forces applied. Here we show that the Neanderthal and modern human hyoids also present very similar internal architectures and micro-biomechanical behaviors”. The anatomy of the Neanderthal
the door to the infinite possibilities to construct a more meaningful identity that can be modeled to the desire of the individual without the fear of being perceived as insincere. After all, the caller is able to solidify the behaviors that more accurately reflects the spectrum of his identity. Identity, then becomes a spectrum of behaviors that are not limited to singularity or established core.
The function of onomatopoeia is changing and different. In the early hunting time, the application of onomatopoeia is to communicate with each other by simulate the sound of the animals. This is effective to express the sound. Another significant function is reflected in the growing of a child. When the child is too young to speak, they are clever enough to imitate the sound of other things. It is also an effective way of expressing what they want or what they hear. At the same time, their parents can easily understand what they want to express. This kind of action can help them form a cognitive knowledge of their surroundings as well as promote the development of their brain. Meantime, they can use this innate skill to learn a language from their parents.