The Evolution Of Human Speech : Anatomical Aspect

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The Evolution of Human Speech: Anatomical Aspect
As human we can communicate via our speaking ability to express our feelings, as a way to deliver the message we want to others. These articles that I read discuss the anatomical prerequisite for humans to gain the ability to speak such as the absent and present of the air sac in hominids. Morphological changes of the face structure such as the descent of the larynx. The controversial hypothesis of the hypoglossal canal sizes is indicative of speech, which assumed modern humans have a larger hypoglossal canal size compare to other hominids. These papers only focus on the anatomical aspects of the possible contribution to the human speech.
The first paper was the study done by Bart de Boer
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The choices produce through the tubes were (a & e) (a & y), and a “don’t know” choice. Please refer to figure 3 on page for 3 a depiction of the tubes.
The data were collected and used to construct a boxplot on figure 4. The measurement of the signal to noise ratio of both options a/e and a/y were shown in the figures. Boxplots for without air sacs are significantly lower in signal to ratio and the condition with air sacs tolerates less noise (de Boer 2012). There data for both options a/e and a/y were plotted into a boxplot but there is no mention of the “don’t know” choice, therefore not sure how the author deal with that option, perhaps it was eliminated. de Boer 2012 concluded in this paper that the lower frequencies of the sound and the communication that is successful for participants to understand is the one that able to produce a more distinctive signals. Also having an air sac siting in the vocal tract result in a blockage of the clear communication Further noted in this experiment that the participants were more comfortable the without air sacs acoustic than with air sacs due to humans possessed no air sacs.
The second paper, “The Descent of the hyoid in chimpanzees: evolution of face flattening and speech” talked about the ratio of the supralaryngeal vocal tract: vertical and horizontal (SVTv) and (SVTH). Modern humans have a 1:1 ratio. Nishimura et.al. (2006) stated that the mechanism for speech to occur requires lungs
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