Literature Review 2 Mark Nunes Arkansas State University Abstract In his study, McKeever cites moral reasons for prohibiting performance enhancing drugs (PED’s) in professional sport. The first reason for prohibiting PED’s cited by McKeever was when athletes compete against each other in a sporting event they form a natural bond. This bond requires trust to maintain, and if both sides are not honest about PED use then that can damage the spirit of competition. The second motive for prohibiting PED use in professional athletes is equality. McKeever believes that for competition to be fun for all sides then the playing field must be level for all sides. If some participants are unwilling to follow the rules then they are preventing the rest of the participants from playing in a fair arena. McKeever offers a solution to PED use in his paper. He claims that more diversity among sporting leagues would alleviate the issue of athletes using PED’s. If some leagues were created that allowed athletes to use PED’s then athletes would have the autonomy to choose which league they would rather participate in. McKeever also states that athletes, and people in general, need autonomy to be content. The problem with his scenario is funding. If there is not enough funding to create the autonomy needed then McKeever claims that morally we must shift our viewpoint to allow PED use in professional sport. Body There are numerous studies that cite various reasons for prohibiting
A number of prominent athletes have recently experienced a 'fall from grace,' because of the revelation that they used performance-enhancing drugs. Perhaps the most famous example of this phenomenon is Lance Armstrong. In an advertisement for Nike that his former sponsor now no doubt regrets, Armstrong is shown asking the viewer "what am I on? I'm on my bike, busting my ass six hours a day." Professional cycling is often cited as one of the sports in which doping is most endemic to its subculture, however a number of professional sports have been embroiled in drug scandals. Because of the many revelations about the number of baseball players who used steroids to get their record-breaking statistics, the 1990s are often called the 'steroid' era of baseball. The Olympic track and field star Marian Jones was stripped of her medals, after finally admitting to the use of performance-enhancing drugs (Lardon 2008). "Despite the health risks, and despite the regulating bodies' attempts to eliminate drugs from sport, the use of illegal substances is widely known to be rife. It hardly raises an eyebrow now when some famous athlete fails a dope test" (Savulescu, Foddy, & Clayton 2004).
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) explained the data presented in figure 3.2 A. It describe the percentages on the perceptions of values most reinforced through sport. A number of athletes wanted to have higher opportunity to win in the game as well as having desire to increase the effectiveness of their performances. In order to achieve their goals, they willing to consume PEDs in sports. This causes inequality among athletes in the competition espacially to those who do not consume PEDs. Also, athletes with doping habit Hence, this explains that PEDs create un unfairness among athlets and bring bad influence to teenagers.
Mr. Smith states “The primary reason why performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are outlawed in professional sports is that they give users an unfair advantage over the rest of the field” and that “legalizing PEDs would make life much easier for professional sports organizations currently
PEDS were not part of the National Football League or the Major League Baseball in the past and it should be kept that way. What makes these leagues so intriguing to watch these athletes perform is knowing that this is their natural ability. An athletes should not put their body in greater risk of harm just for viewership for the league. Work ethic and human ability should be what gets these athletes into the league, not a drug. Commissioners and viewers know that it is morally wrong to destroy one's’ body just to have a more exciting game. Passing a rule to allow PEDS will ruin the credibility of these athletes abilities and shameful to the commissioner to allow cheating. These athletes should be setting an example to the youth. Younger children
Do you want to want to become the peak athlete that you know your body is capable of? Well, this paper will not do that for you, but it will tell you how, and it will tell you why it should be legal to do so. Doping in sports is one of the most extensive debates within the realm of athletics. Whether it be injecting anabolic steroids, consuming them, or blood doping, athletes will do drugs. Doping has no effect on the viewership of the sport. Athletes can always find ways to cheat the system, and trying to prevent the use seems impossible. The use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) should be legalized, as long as it is allowed under medical supervision.
Have you ever wondered why NFL players aren’t always caught with performance enhancing drugs (peds)? NFL players and NBL players are only tested once every couple months for peds, and that gives the players time to get the peds out of their body. Players have made it through the tests while still using peds but caught the next time. The tests are not very strict. The tests need to be stricter because some professional athletes have made it through the test while using them and other have not; although they were using doctor prescribed peds. The three reasons that ped tests need to be stricter are that it can cause health risks, long term effects and for other players to get suspended even though they were doing the
Many players throughout the past 10 years have been caught using Performing-enhancing drugs. Changes have been made in the leagues like the NFL, NBA and MLB, but is it enough to make the players stop doing them? I've researched many topics on why certain players decide to use the performing-enhancing drugs with knowing the consequences of getting caught. My biggest question is, if the leagues are trying hard enough to make these players avoid being caught? For example, The MLB gives the players a scheduled date of a drug test and they have to pass it on that day. These performance-enhancing drugs are ruining sports and players should be randomly tested more often, and a user should be banned from the league at
The ball was set. Over the net it went, just to be bumped up, and spiked down on the side that set it. Just then one of the teammates flashed past the rest of them and dove on the ground, hands outstretched. There was a smacking sound as the ball hit her hands. The ball bounced back up. She had saved her team. One of her teammates realized what was happening and quickly jumped in to help, spiking the ball down on the other side of the net, hitting the ground with a thud. But how did she dive so quickly? The ball was a second away from hitting the ground yet she had managed to save it. PEDs is how she managed to save it. Because she was taking the performance enhancing drug, it gave her enough speed to dive for the ball that quickly. Of course,
Performance enhancing drugs have been a longstanding problem in sports. It not only deteriorates the honesty of the game, but also can have broader social affects that one may not even realize. The use of performance enhancing drugs is especially apparent in Major League Baseball. This problem can be traced back to the 1980’s when baseball was facing one of its first “dark periods”. During the 1980’s Major League Baseball was experiencing a home run drought. Home run totals were down as far as they had been since Babe Ruth, and fans were seemingly becoming bored with the sport. The lack of home runs was a growing concern for players whose salary relied on home run totals. Players needed to find a quick way to boost their
Lance Armstrong, Barry Bonds, and Marion Jones have all been caught using Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) while competing at the highest level of professional sports. What caused these athletes to use PEDs to enhance their performance? The use of social psychology can be used to test and experiment with these types of questions. “Social psychology is the scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people,” (Lecture, 8/25/15). The researchers of this experiment examined elite-level athletes and gave them anonymous questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables to see whether there were any predictors of doping from these elite-level
There are good reasons to allow performance enhancement, to make sport fairer and to narrow the gap between the cheaters and the honest athletes. It would provide a better spectacle, be safer and less coercive” (Foddy) Therefore, with the legalization of PED’s not only would the playing field suddenly be even for all players, it would be at a higher level. Furthermore, athletes on the way up whose entourages don’t yet include savvy physiotherapists and doctors would be less likely to overdose and do themselves harm.
Performance Enhancing Drugs are an injustice to sports and should be permanently banned. PEDs have been a problem for many years and all sports have a problem with it. Commissioner of Baseball, Bud Selig said: "Major League Baseball has worked diligently with the Players Association for more than a decade to make our Joint Drug Program the best in all of professional sports. I am proud of the comprehensive nature of our efforts" (http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2013/aug/05/mlb-commissioner-bud-selig-drugs-peds). He went on to discuss these efforts in some detail. This topic and efforts have been debated for many years.
In the MLB, we can easily see how PED’s affect the revenue because of how consistent the game has been over the year and because they play so many games a year. With money being the number one attraction to organizations, owners, and players, the increase of salary gained using PED’s has been substantial. Louis Pantuosco did a study on the increased salary of the players using PED’s during the steroid era. He found that on average, with PED use, a player could increase their slugging percentage, calculated as the power the hitter, from around .428 to .460, which led to an approximate increase of about $700,000 per year. Increase of stats can be immediately shown with increase in salary. Brady Anderson was paid about $3 million in 1995 with
When I was younger I loved watching my favorite athletes go out and give it their all in their respective sports. One particular athlete was Alex Rodriguez, even though he was caught using performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) in the early 2000’s I thought the past was the past, he apologized so things moved on. But recently he was again caught using PEDs and this time I completely lost all respect for him. I was disgusted that one of my favorite athletes had never learned from their mistake, but the more I contemplated and researched on the situation my views on PEDs were changing. I realized how PEDs evolved sports. PEDs has been used since the Ancient Greeks, by the Roman Gladiators, even in modern olympics. It was only in 1928 when actions were first taken against doping. In my eyes PEDs has a place in modern sports. Athletes that consume large amounts of PEDs are at risk. However by allowing athletes to dope PEDs can be regulated keeping athletes safe, enhance their performance, and benefit sport organizations. Therefore when PEDs are controlled the possibilities are endless.
competitive advantage against their opponents. Numerous athletes have been exposed for their illegal substance abuse or “doping.” Athletes, such as New York Yankees third baseman Alex Rodriquez, were caught with performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) in their systems and suspended from their respected sports. Cyclist Lance Armstrong made international headlines when he admitted to using banned performance enhancers during his career, stripping him of his seven Tour de France titles. Hall of Fame-worthy baseball players from the 90’s to 2000’s were denied entrance because they played in the “steroid era.” There are easily several noteworthy cases of illegal substance abuse every year. Along with the increase of use among athletes, the use of PEDs among America’s youth is increasing each year. Most athletic enthusiasts with basic