The Responsurement Theory : The Enlightenment Development Of The Enlightenment Theory

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To start with, positivism was an arrange by Auguste Comte during the 1800’s. It was Comte who founded the term positivism and sociology. In the meanwhile, Comte and Saint-Simon disagree in the discussion that human knowledge migrates in stages, such as the theocratic and metaphysical before it completes its duration. Also, during this stage, the truth will prevail through scientific methods. According, to Comte the Enlightenment thinking, was a factor in the progression of the theocratic stage in which it continues to the metaphysical stage by breaking up the old feudal(Bohm & Vogel, 2011). In additional was Enlightenment philosophy added some progress to the positive stage, and therefore, outlive its usefulness. Also, neither did …show more content…

The Biological theory has several attributes such as physiognomy, phrenology, criminal anthropology, the study of body types, heredity studies, twin studies, and adoption studies. According to Physiognomy, an individual facial structure will determine if they are insensitive, swinish and what type of crime they are subject to commit. Also, this theory determines how a punishment would be given base upon the appearance of an individual. For instance, there was two individual involved in a crime, one of the individual was consider as being ugly whereas the other was known to be handsome. The uglier individual was noted to be the guilty party(Bohm & Vogel, 2011). Next, is phrenology, uses the skull to determine the character and the intelligence. The founder and co-founder of phrenology work are Franz Joseph Gall and student Johann Gasper Spurzheim, in which gave them the named as the father of criminology. After a half of the nineteenth century, it lost its support due to determinism, because it was anti-religious and anti-free will. Cesare Lombroso, share his expertise in anthropology by stating that the signs or anomalies can determine the difference between a criminal and non-criminals. Lombroso, believes in accountability, by enforcing a criminal to cover the cost of restoring the crime victim for their loss and keep a job to fulfill their obligation in paying restitution(Bohm & Vogel,

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