Major Colvin’s creation of “Hamsterdam” was an attempt to reduce the effects, such as violence, homicide, prostitution and other crimes, of the prevalent drug trade on the city of Baltimore. The drug trade or Baltimore and its abundance of drug users were portraying Baltimore and its police force in a negative light. It was believed that nothing was being done to improve this problem. “Hamsterdam” was a designated city block in the slums of Baltimore where drug trade, possession and open use were legal. In episodes of HBO’s, The Wire, where “Hamsterdam” was portrayed, one sees a concentration of drug use and sale where police presence is seen, however they are merely overseeing the area (Hampsterdam). The goal of this legalized area was to concentrate the drug use in Baltimore to one city block, rather than having it spread out. With the sale of drugs restricted to this city block, there would be no competition for “turf” or designated corners claimed by different drug dealers. Without this competition for land, Major Colvin and the Baltimore police hoped to see less violence and less homicide cases. In addition to less violence, this concentrated area was a way for public health organizations to distribute clean needles, disease testing, condoms and safe sex education to the individuals utilizing this area. The “broken windows” model of policing was created as an experimental way of policing areas of high crime. The main focus of the “broken windows” model of policing was
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For many years, drugs have been the center of crime and the criminal justice system in the United States. Due to this widespread epidemic, President Richard Nixon declared the “War on Drugs” in 1971 with a campaign that promoted the prohibition of illicit substances and implemented policies to discourage the overall production, distribution, and consumption. The War on Drugs and the U.S. drug policy has experienced the most significant and complex challenges between criminal law and the values of today’s society. With implemented drug polices becoming much harsher over the years in order to reduce the overall misuse and abuse of drugs and a expanded federal budget, it has sparked a nation wide debate whether or not they have created more harm than good. When looking at the negative consequences of these policies not only has billions of dollars gone to waste, but the United States has also seen public health issues, mass incarceration, and violent drug related crime within the black market in which feeds our global demands and economy. With this failed approach for drug prohibition, there continues to be an increase in the overall production of illicit substances, high rate of violence, and an unfavorable impact to our nation.
It is no secret that the city of Richmond has a major problem with drugs and drug dealing. Where there is demand, there will be supply. The Richmond Redevelopment and Housing Authority (RRHA) is the local agency in charge of all operations related to Richmond’s public housing communities. In an effort to fight crime and drug dealing in these communities, the RRHA has developed strict policies that ban anyone with drug convictions from their private properties. Although this may appear to be a great crime fighting strategy, we cannot ignore the fact that crime just doesn’t go away because of laws or
In Light Blue Versus Dark Blue: Attitudinal Differences in Quality-of Life Policing, Lorenzo M. Boyd explores the difference between the attitudes of Black and White police officers regarding quality-of-life arrest. Boyd explains that quality-of-life arrest focus police resources on aggressive enforcement of social and physical disorders and not only crime per se (Boyd 38, 2010). In other words, “police believe that strategically targeting disorder and/or quality-of-life violations instead of just responding to service calls is critical in preventing serious crimes” (Boyd 38, 2010). This type of policing often referred to as Broken Windows Theory or broken windows policing focus on low quality crimes such as graffiti and vandalism. These crimes are often victimless and more likely crimes against property.
Wilson and Kelling’s key idea is that disorder and the absence of controls leads to crime. Their solution is to crack down on any disorder using a twofold strategy. First an environmental improvement strategy that any broken window must be repaired immediately, otherwise more will follow and the neighbourhood will be on the slide. Secondly the police must adopt a zero tolerance policing strategy. Instead of merely reacting to crime, the must proactively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder, even if it is not criminal. This
The “broken window” policy was used to put officers on foot patrol in community neighborhoods in order to prevent household crimes such as burglary and vandalism. This main goal for policing these neighborhoods, “was
The “War On Drugs” and Anti Drug Abuse Act of 1986 required aggressive enforcement. One method is the use of undercover police to enforce these laws. Three factors can jeopardize a dealer’s income: 1) Nonpayment, 2) other dealers encroaching on territories; turf wars and the biggest factor 3) being caught by the police. A method that crack cocaine dealers used to protect these three factors was the use and possession of guns. In the 1980s and 1990’s guns were as plentiful as illegal drugs. The U.S. Department of Justice in a manual of “Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence” cites that “those who are most likely to possess
The correlation between gangs and drugs has always been an issue for the United States government. Major cities often overlooked the problem of youth gang violence, thinking it was only a 1960’s trend. Sixty years later, gangs and drugs continue to be a problem, but in an increasing number within urban, suburban and rural areas in the United States. People may characterize this problem with words such as violence, increase drug activity, and delinquencies, but not many seem to see the bigger picture. Lack of interaction, collaboration, and strategies from law enforcement, youth centers, businesses, churches, and political icons are increasing gang violence and drug related offenses in major cities. In such cities as Chicago, minority groups are the most vulnerable to joining a gang, which then leads to an involvement with drugs; they are faced with barriers – lack of family support, poverty, segregation, unemployment, etc. An incident that happened in Chicago history is the closing of the Cabrini-Green Project, where people involved with gangs had to find a new home, scattering gang-members throughout the city, and eventually leading to their spread and growth.
William Bratton, commissioner of the New York Police Department from 1994 to 1996, presided over a dramatic decline in the city’s crime rate. Hired by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani as part of a new crime fighting initiative, Bratton embraced the “broken windows” theory that had made him so successful as chief of the city’s transit police. According to this theory, when a community ignores small offenses such as a broken window on a parked car, larger offenses such as burglary, robbery, and assault inevitably follow. Conversely, serious crime can be prevented if a community polices the little
New York City during the 1990s has experience crime rates dropping dramatically under Mayor Rudy Giuliani and Police Commissioner Bill Bratton lead. Both began new approach to policing by developing several new strategies under the proponent of “broken windows” theory. Under Bratton, the NYPD began to enforce statutes aimed at curbing “quality of life” offense, offenses that are minor and were overlooked in the past in favor to concentrate on serious crimes. Under the Broken Windows theory, small crimes leads to bigger crimes so taking a stance against the minor behavior sends a signal to the community that any kind of law breaking would not be tolerated. Community policing program was adopted in a minor form as police officials focused their
This paper will cover two policing styles known as the “broken windows” theory and community policing. The paper will end with a small analysis of which style would be more practical long-term. This paper will start with an explanation as to what the “broken windows” theory is. Furthermore, this paper will cover some of advantages and disadvantages of that theory when put into practical application. Additionally, this essay will explain what “community policing” as defined by the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This is followed by a brief discussion some advantages and challenges that are unique to that approach. Lastly, this paper covers which one would be more viable policing in the long-term.
While its application can vary within and across police departments, broken windows policing to prevent crime is now a common crime control strategy. We will consider all policing programs that attempt to reduce crime through addressing physical disorder (vacant lots, abandoned buildings, graffiti, etc.) and social disorder (public drinking, prostitution, loitering, etc.) in neighborhood areas. These interventions will be compared to other police crime reduction efforts that do not attempt to reduce crime through reducing disorderly conditions such as traditional policing (i.e., regular levels of patrol, ad-hoc investigations, etc.) or problem-oriented policing programs focused on other types of local dynamics and situations. As part of our examination of the impacts of broken windows policing on crime, we are also proposing to review the existing theoretical research evidence on the relationship between disorderly conditions and serious crime in neighborhoods. Similar to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of suspect race on police arrest decisions (Rinehart Kochel, Wilson, & Mastrofski,
“Broken Windows” by Wilson and Kelling is a seminal work in the study of Criminal Justice. Starting off, the effectiveness and outcomes of implementing foot patrols was discussed. Foot patrols were found to not decrease crime, but did increase citizen’s favorable opinions on the police and perceived level of safety.
I think you’re on to something with the hybrid idea. As you mentioned, just one method of police will not address all the issues. The broken windows method, focuses on measures meant to be preventive. By enforcing minor violations, they hope to deter the more serious crimes.
Boston is being threatened by the increasing use of drug. The number of arrests related to drugs is continuously on the rise. It also implies a huge inestimable underground ‘black market’ of drugs running through the city. Boston’s Mayor Raymond Flynn is looking to take the drug problem head-on. He enforced various ‘anti-drug’ and ‘drug-education’ programmes but quick and substantial profits were increasing drug-trafficking and attracting illegal drug dealers. This time Mayors policy advisor Neil Sullivan and Marc Zegan initiated a research program to create a plan to ‘de-market’ the drug in Boston. Harvard Business School’s four member field study group came up with a research design and analysis.