Thomas Hobbes And The Social Contract

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Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), an English philosopher published the work, Leviathan, which proposed the concept of the social contract, in which societal assimilation mandates submission to authoritarian rule, with a relinquishment of certain rights, in return for protection and aid. Hobbes offered a foundational premise for benefits that otherwise might be absent, if not for societal constructs. John Locke, another English philosopher published the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which expounded on the work of Hobbes by proposing a more integrated and ordered society. The societal implications meant a surrender of some individual freedoms in return for a governmental structure tasked with the responsibility of protections, including the …show more content…

Cesare believed that punishment was an effective deterrent to crime, as the offender is rational and in control of their actions and behaviors. Cesare expressed that the “punishment should fit the crime” and that “adjudication and punishment should be both swift and certain”. He advocated for due process on the implication of innocence until proven guilty and condemned torture on the same pretense as torturous punishment towards self-incrimination implies guilt prior to a guilty verdict by a judicial body. His principles influenced classic criminology in the principles of punishment, due process, rationality, and human rights. The Bill of Rights in the US constitution has several concepts influenced, some believe, by his writings. (Cesare Beccaria, 2017)Jeremy Bentham, author of “Introduction to the Principles of Moral and Legislation”, built on Cesare statement that “punish should fit the crime”, by asserting that the hedonistic nature of man requires that the pain or punishment of committing the crime outweigh the pleasure or reward obtained from committing the crime (Schmalleger, 2010). Bentham asserted the position that human rationality and hedonistic pursuits factored into the mentality of an individual’s decision to commit a crime based on proper or extreme punishments to serve as a deterrent. Hobbes’

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