As a researching assistant defense attorney in criminal trials, the case State of Alabama v Thomas Robinson, Atticus Finch uses rhetorical strategies that were effective in persuading hostile juries. The lawyer’s closing statement emphasizes the importance of rhetorical devices and how they affect the mindset of a hostile jury. Atticus Finch uses the phrase, "..all men are created equal…(Harper Lee 205) as an allusion to stress the importance of ethnicity not being the factor in the outcome of the trial. The allusion comes from the Constitution, the law of the land. This is effective for Atticus' audience because the law that they are abiding by, states that Tom Robinson is an equally valued member of society. During that time, the law …show more content…
The lawyer uses the rhetorical appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos. These devices help convince the jury and form the tone of the statement. Finch uses multiple factual assertions about the evidence for defending Tom Robinson. “The state has not produced one iota of medical evidence to the effect that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place.(Lee 203)” Atticus used the word iota to create a solemn tone. Iota is defined as an extremely small amount. Using this word enabled Finch to develop a tone while sounding logical and creating credibility. The lawyer has a tone shift at the last paragraph in his closing statement. “..you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this defendant to his family. In the name of God, do your duty. (Lee 205)” Atticus uses multiple examples of pathos, the most effective rhetoric appeal, to change the tone of his declaration. Finch uses the emotional connection with a family when stating,”..restore this defendant to his family..(Lee 205)” Atticus appeals to the religious aspect of the jury when pleading, “In the name of God, do your duty. (Lee 205)” Atticus Finch transfer to a passionate and sensitive tone to connect to the jury beyond their mind and to their heart. Atticus Finch attempts to persuade his audience with the usage of anaphora, aporia, and asyndeton. The rhetorical device, anaphora, uses the repetition of the phrase, all Negroes,
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Jem on pg 231 that is wasn’t right for Tom Robinson to be convicted of a crime that he did not commit, Jem asked his father is they could do away with the juries because he knows that there was no way the Tom Robinson should have been convicted of that crime, and it was because of the juries that he was sent to prison. On Page 240 Atticus says to his son Jem that “In our courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black mans, the white man always wins. They’re ugly, but those are the facts of life”. Atticus said this to Jem because the society that they lived in was always going to treat ‘black’ people in
Through the flawless use of the rhetoric, Atticus Finch speaks persuasively and wins over the jury during his concluding argument of the trial of Tom Robinson. As a lawyer, Mr. Finch understands how to speak effectively and persuasively, allowing him to make use of compositional techniques like rhetoric. He uses all three parts of rhetoric, logos, ethos, and pathos, to help him coax the jury to side with him. Although the emerges unsuccessful, he perfectly illustrates examples of rhetoric and the different ways to use it. Atticus cunningly convinces the jury of Tom Robinson’s innocence by appealing to them through the rhetoric.
To do so, both lawyers needed to approach the courtroom with the correct tone of voice. Initially, both lawyers started out with a casual tone as if they were talking to a friend. As it gradually went on the attitude of both lawyers started to change. Atticus stayed relaxed, and preserving in order to appeal to the courtroom’s emotions. His voice was intriguing and really captured the audience, however towards the end his tone shifted pleading the jury to make the right decision. In “A Lesson before Dying” the lawyer’s tone of voice changes rather fast. He sounds as if he gave up convincing the jury of Jefferson’s innocents and is insulting him instead. An example of the lawyer’s mockery towards Jefferson is when he says, “Justice, gentleman? Why, I would just as soon put a hog in the electric chair as this.” However, right before his insulting remark he does what Atticus had done, he pleaded to the jury to make the right decision. In essence, Atticus is the only one committed to changing the jury's mind, the other attorney is rather nasty, and even questions his own clients
Atticus also develops a specific tone in his closing argument. This affects the audience because his tone affects the mood of a jury. Atticus’ tone is very serious and straightforward. This tone shows the jury that he knows what really happened, and the jury should too, because the evidence is so obvious. However, throughout his argument, his mood shifts. Primarily there is a tense and serious tone, but in the beginning and the end there is a tone that is more reasonable and cooperative, versus Atticus stating facts and standing his ground. “Gentlemen,” he was saying, “I shall be brief, but I would like to use my remaining time to remind you that this case is not a difficult one”. This is Atticus’ tone during the beginning and end because it sort of caps off his
The purpose of this statement is to show the jury that in court, everyone is equal. This could poteniálly sway the jury because they are forced to look beyond race. Without a doubt, Atticus shows the jury that the court is only as fair as the people sitting in it. "I 'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and in the jury system—that is no ideal to me, it is a living, working reality. Gentlemen, a court is no better than each man of you sitting before me on this jury. A court is only as sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up.” Atticus tells the jury this to persuade them to be their best selves and really consider everything going on beside the race in play. A reader could infer that Atticus is using ethos to persuade the jury to really listen and trust him. In conclusion, Atticus’ use of ethos played a very important role in his closing argument. It was extremely useful to show the jury and the rest of the court that they need to trust his credibility in order to make the right decision.
In his closing argument for OJ Simpson’s criminal trial, Johnnie Cochran successfully argues for Simpson’s innocence. Repetition, appeals to audience emotion, and the use of scenarios to appeal to logic are all rhetorical devices which Cochran skillfully uses in order to create an argument that is strong and convincing to the courtroom. These devices help him shape his argument tactically in a manner and order that successfully defends OJ Simpson in the trial.
In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus defends Tom Robinson in court, delivering one of the most famous fictional speeches in history.In his closing remarks he utilizes logos, hypophora and pathos.
In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, during chapters seventeen through twenty-one, one of the leading characters, Atticus, has to defend a black man in a court case against two white people. Before the jury is sent to make their decision, Atticus gives a closing argument speech. During his speech, Atticus uses three main types of persuasion called: ethos, pathos, and logos.
In a stuffy courtroom during the summer of 1935 located in a simple Southern town, a lawyer stands ready to defend his client. However, in this trial the lawyer, Atticus, has a rough road ahead of him since he must defend a black man; in front of a white jury. Plus, he must break down the jury’s mindset established in the pre-Civil War ideas. He does not hesitate for a second but delivers a profound and moving speech which sears itself into the audience’s brains. Regrettably, this speech does not exist in history books, but instead in the fictional story, To Kill A Mockingbird. Despite its fictional roots, this speech earned its place on the chart containing many other well-known speeches. Yet, what made this speech noteworthy and proved Atticus’ skill in debating? To answer one could say his attempt to prove the innocence of a man stemmed from his adept use of pathos, ethos, and logos.
Along with logos, pathos is also frequently used throughout Atticus’ closing argument. In the text, Atticus states, “And so a quiet, respectable, humble Negro who had the unmitigated temerity to ‘feel sorry’ for a white woman has had to put his word against two white people’s.” By saying this, Atticus is building up Tom’s likability, and is trying to conduct some sort of pity toward Tom from the jury members. Although some argumentative techniques are used in this speech more than others, they are not necessarily the most effective.
Undoubtedly, one of the most controversial subjects in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird, would be whether or not Atticus Finch should have defended Tom Robinson. However, in order to understand this controversy, a person must first be able to understand Atticus Finch himself. Atticus as a character is a very intellectual person who possesses the fortitude to stand up for whatever he believes is right and will not let other people’s choices affect his own. Furthermore, it is also important to understand that Atticus is not a racist, nor does he approve of the idea that one group of people are better than another based on their appearances in general, and because of this, a person can generalize that Atticus’s characteristic traits are why he did not complain when given the task of defending a black man, Tom Robinson, who had been wrongfully accused of raping a white woman. A man that he, as well as a small group of other people from town, viewed as the picture of innocence. In their eyes, Tom was no more than a mockingbird, “[and mockingbirds] don’t do one thing but make music for [people] to enjoy” (Lee 119). Knowing this, anyone with a reasonably strong sense of what is right and what is wrong can conclude that it does make sense for Atticus Finch to have taken the case due to his belief that it is a sin to kill the innocent as well as his courage that allows him to stay true to his ideas, even though when taking the case, he was inevitably going to be putting his
My name is Samantha and I am a high school Freshman in the Bay Area. Recently in English class, we have finished the classic book To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee. In the book, we looked at the symbolism and how it relates to modern issues. I quickly noticed that the book not only show the court system in the 1960s but also the court system standing today. By having a colored man convicted of a crime he did not relates to today's issue of the colored community getting harsher and longer sentences. You are one of the people with the most power in this country so I am asking for you to put an end to the racial profiling that goes on in this country by having the jury and judge not see the defendant during hearings.
As the world expands and our communities start multiplying, it seems to be arduous to interact with people who have a 50% chance to either be kind or cruel. Sometimes those vicious people can bring you down and make you feel so small ,but what can you do stop this? Courage comes around and pushes yourself forward through life’s challenges and obstacles. If you don’t know how to use it then there are some alternatives to help your quest to find the valor in you. The dramatic novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee has the most guidance in that area. Courage is the ability for people to attempt a risky task in their lives even when the likelihood of failure is very high.
For him, like many other real-life Negroes in American history, the principles underpinning political, social and criminal justice failed. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus’ belief that, “in our courts all men are created equal,” ( p. 209) makes a complete mockery of the judicial system.
As one of the most influential characters in literary history, Atticus Finch sparked dialogue and disagreement still evident in society today. While Harper Lee clearly intended her character to reflect the ideal personality to counter racism, some of his aspects receive criticisms of numerous kinds. From political controversy to issues surrounding integrity, Atticus does not escape the strict standards of modern literary criticism. But despite several character flaws, Atticus still represents a wholesome man that everyone should emulate. Because of his thirst for justice, undeniable integrity, and unshakeable foundations, Atticus Finch demonstrates the proper way anyone should react to the face of prejudice.